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A nectar-secreting gall wasp and ant mutualism: selection and counter-selection shaping gall wasp phenology, fecundity and persistence

, : A nectar-secreting gall wasp and ant mutualism: selection and counter-selection shaping gall wasp phenology, fecundity and persistence. Ecological Entomology. August; 183: 247-253

The natural history of the cynipid Disholcaspis perniciosa including interactions with inquilines, parasites, and a mutualistic ant were studied on Quercus gambelii in Colorado during 1982-84 and 1987-88. An exclusion experiment demonstrated that the nectar-secreting gall of D. perniciosa mediated a mutualism with the tending ant Formica obscuripes. Survivorship increased from zero in the absence of ants to 25.3% in their presence, largely due to the exclusion of inquilines.


DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.1993.tb01097.x

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