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In vitro mass-propagation and variant selection of yacon, Polymnia sonchifolia, by tissue culture


, : In vitro mass-propagation and variant selection of yacon, Polymnia sonchifolia, by tissue culture. Bulletin of the Shikoku National Agricultural Experiment Station 0(57): 99-110

Yacon plant, Polymnia sonchifolia, native to the Andean highlands has large subterranean tuberous roots that contain a large amount of oligofructan. Studies were carried out to develop on in vitro method of mass-propagation of the plant. In another program the occurrence of variability during tissue culture was explored to select the morphological variants. The results are summarized as follows 1. Shoot apices from the mature plants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and several cytokinins, benzylaminopurine (BAP) and kinetin, at various concentrations and combinations at 25 degree C during a 16-hr/day photoperiod. Active shoot elongation from the explants was obtained with BAP alone at lower concentrations. At a high concentration of BAP, especially 2.0mg/l, however, the explants developed into nodular tissues, then continuously developed to shoot clusters. The most effective adventitious shoot proliferation from the clusters occurred in the presence of 0.2mg/l NAA and 2.0mg/l BAP. Both shoots that divided to shoot tips and each node and the clusters from which the shoots were dissected were subcultured on the same MS medium for further multiplication of the shoots. Isolated shoots easily rooted after culture on MS medium lacking growth hormones. No morphological abnormalities among the plantlets of each clone were observed. Moreover, no existences of latent cucumber mosaic virus and other viruses in the plantlets were demonstrated by enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay, observation by electron microscopy and sap inoculation to cucumber seedlings. The plantlets transferred to potted soil could be established under greenhouse conditions following gradual acclimatization indoors. 2. The effective concentrations of growth hormones for callus induction from the shoot apices and stem segments ranged from 2.0mg/l NAA plus 0 to 0.02mg/l BAP and from 0.5 to 3.0mg/l NAA plus 0.2 to 0.5mg/l BAP, respectively. However, the optimum conditions for the use of growth hormones for plant regeneration from the callus could not be determined during several continuous experiments. For the induction of genetic variability and line selection in the plantlets, 53 shoot apices were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.5mg/l NAA and 0.5mg/l BA which induced the formation of both shoot and callus from the explants. Each shoot induced was transferred and subcultured onto a hormone-free MS medium at 1 month intervals for 1 year. The clones were obtained by line selection, because the induction rates among the clones in the calli derived from the stem segments varied. Two clones, No.6 and No.23, showed an active callus induction. They also grew up to slightly vitrified plants under in vitro conditions.

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