geoscience.net logo
+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

The possibility of an X factor. The first documented drug resistance of human malaria


, : The possibility of an X factor. The first documented drug resistance of human malaria. International Journal for Parasitology 26(10): 1035-1061

Malaria was the major cause of casualties among allied forces in the South West Pacific campaigns during 1942 and 1943, despite the suppressive use of quinine and later atebrin. Clinical experiments undertaken at the Land Headquarters Medical Research Unit of the Australian Army in Cairns, under the direction of Neil Hamilton Fairley, demonstrated that atebrin was able to provide complete protection against vivax and falciparum malaria. Fairley presented the experimental results to army commanders in a specially convened conference at Atherton, Queensland, in June 1944 and persuaded the army that the solution to the malaria problem was for men to take 1 tablet (100 mg) of atebrin each day with unvarying regularity while in a malarious area and for 4 weeks afterwards. Subsequently, rigid atebrin discipline was adopted and the incidence of the disease amongst Australian soldiers in New Guinea during 1945 fell to the lowest levels ever recorded to that time by non-immune troops operating for extended periods in highly endemic malarious areas. The one exception to this unprecedented achievement was during the Aitape-Wewak campaign when an epidemic of falciparum malaria developed despite the use of suppressive atebrin. An investigation of this epidemic, involving chemotherapeutic experiments of malaria derived from specially selected patients evacuated to Cairns, showed that some of the parasites were resistant to atebrin. This paper provides an account of how the epidemic was dealt with by commanders in the field; how suspected atebrin-resistant cases came to light; and how these cases were dealt with experimentally. The emergence and spread of drug-resistant falciparum malaria has since become a key factor limiting man's endeavour to combat the disease. The investigation of the Aitape-Wewak epidemic involved the first systematic field and laboratory studies on the resistance of human malaria to any drug. From the scientific point-of-view, it broke new ground and covered uncharted territory which had not been explored previously by other workers. These observations formed the solid foundations on which later advances in this field subsequently have developed.

US$19.90

PMID: 8982785

DOI: 10.1016/s0020-7519(96)80003-8


Other references

Cox, L.R., 1937: Notes on Jurassic Lamellibranchia. V. On a new sub-genus of Mytilus and a new Mytilus-like genus. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London, 226: 339-348

Anonymous, 2012: The heat is ON in the Neurons neuronal stress in a sod1 Zebrafish model of MND affects neuromuscular junction integrity and causes muscle denervation. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND) is a devastating disease characterised by progressive motor neuron loss leading to paralysis and death. Despite the knowledge that mutations in the SOD1 gene cause ALS relatively little...

Wilfried Haerty; Carlo Artieri; Navid Khezri; Rama S Singh; Bhagwati P Gupta, 2008: Comparative analysis of function and interaction of transcription factors in nematodes: extensive conservation of orthology coupled to rapid sequence evolution. BMC Genomics 9(1): 399-0

Williams, B.R.; Woodby, L.L.; Bailey, F.Amos.; Burgio, K.L., 2015: Formative evaluation of a multi-component, education-based intervention to improve processes of end-of-life care. A multicomponent, palliative care, education-based intervention was implemented in six Veterans Affairs Medical Centers in the southeast United States. The intervention comprised onsite staff training plus supporting written materials, installatio...

Ghimenti, S.; Tabucchi, S.; Lomonaco, T.; D.F.ancesco, F.; Fuoco, R.; Onor, M.; Lenzi, S.; Trivella, M.G., 2013: Monitoring breath during oral glucose tolerance tests. The evolution of breath composition during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) was analysed by thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in 16 subjects and correlated to blood glucose levels. The glucose tolerance tests classified f...

Gordon, W.C.; Dahl, N.A., 1990: Light absorbed by 575-cones trigger rod disc shedding in the frog retina. Photoreceptors periodically shed light-sensitive membranes; rods at light onset, cones at night. The spectral characteristics of light required to initiate shedding by 502-rods were studied in the frog retina. After 24 h of white light, animals we...

Abeygunawardena, H.; Kuruwita, V.Y.; Karunaratne, A.M.; Abayawansa, W.D., 1994: Reproductive characteristics of indigenous buffaloes in Sri Lanka under experimental conditions. Of 279 indigenous buffalo cows in Sri Lanka, 72% calved in Oct.-Feb. Calving interval and service period averaged 507+or-158 and 207+or-158 days respectively, and the calving rate was 55-63%. For 75 heifer calves, birth weight averaged 17.2 kg, da...

Netscher, C., 1981: Presence of aberrant juveniles in a population of Meloidogyne arenaria on sweet potato (Ipomea batatas). Revue de nematologie(2): 281-282

Versfeld, D.B.; Wilgen, B.W. van, 1986: Impact of woody aliens on ecosystem properties. A review of the changes in vegetation resulting from invasions by introduced woody plants, based mainly on data collected in southern Africa from plantations of species known to be invasive (Hakea, Acacia, Pinus and Eucalyptus). Topics discussed i...

Ruf W.; Edgington T.S., 1990: Structure function relationships of tissue factor. Blut 60(2): 118