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Cardiac output in four-, five-, and six-week-old broilers, and hemodynamic responses to intravenous injections of epinephrine

, : Cardiac output in four-, five-, and six-week-old broilers, and hemodynamic responses to intravenous injections of epinephrine. Poultry Science 78(3): 392-403

Female broilers were evaluated at 4, 5, and 6 wk of age (1.2, 1.8, and 2.3 kg BW, respectively) to assess changes in cardiac output and related hemodynamics associated with BW gain, and to evaluate cardiopulmonary hemodynamic adjustments occurring secondary to i.v. injections of epinephrine (0.1 mg/ kg BW). Cardiac output increased with BW (253, 348, and 434 mL/min at 4, 5, and 6 wk, respectively) due to increases in stroke volume (0.70, 1.03, and 1.33 mL/beat) that more than compensated for reductions in heart rate (362, 337, and 328 bpm). Normalization for BW eliminated the differences in cardiac output and stroke volume. Increases in cardiac output were not associated with age- or BW-related increases in mean systemic arterial pressure (101.5, 108.6, and 108.0 mm Hg) due to corresponding reductions in total peripheral resistance (0.41, 0.32, and 0.26 relative resistance units). Epinephrine initially triggered immediate (within 90 s) threefold increases in total peripheral resistance and pulmonary vascular resistance, which, in turn, increased the systemic arterial pressure and pulmonary arterial pressure in spite of concurrent reductions in cardiac output that were associated with diminished venous return and dependent reductions in stroke volume and heart rate. Within 150 s after epinephrine injection, the systemic and pulmonary vascular resistances returned to preinjection control levels. By 300 s postinjection, stroke volume and heart rate increased, causing cardiac output to rise above preinjection control levels, which, in turn, elicited variable pulmonary arterial pressure responses apparently reflecting individual variability in the capacity for flow-dependent pulmonary vasodilation. These studies demonstrate that chronic (age- and BW-related) and acute (epinephrine-induced) changes in cardiac output in broilers reflect complex interactions among hemodynamic variables that include stroke volume, heart rate, and systemic and pulmonary vascular resistances.


PMID: 10090267

DOI: 10.1093/ps/78.3.392

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