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Toxicity of azadirachtin derivatives and synthetic pyrethroids on oilseed rape to Apis cerana (Hymenoptera; Apidae)


, : Toxicity of azadirachtin derivatives and synthetic pyrethroids on oilseed rape to Apis cerana (Hymenoptera; Apidae). Biopesticides: toxicity, safety, development and proper use Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Biopesticides, Phitsanulok, Thailand, October 27-31, 1996: 82-86

Neem (Azadirachta indica)-based pesticides, azadirachtin-A (Neemix) and azadirachtin-B (Advantage), and synthetic pyrethroids, lambda-cyhalothrin (Karate) and permethrin (Ambush), were sprayed during the peak foraging hours of A. cerana on 99-msuperscript 2 caged plots of flowering rape (Brassica chinensis) in Thailand. There were 3 replicates. Observations were made 3 days before and 3 days after the application of the pesticides.

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