+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Developmental variation of sugars, carboxylic acids, purine alkaloids, fatty acids, and endoproteinase activity during maturation of Theobroma cacao L. seeds

, : Developmental variation of sugars, carboxylic acids, purine alkaloids, fatty acids, and endoproteinase activity during maturation of Theobroma cacao L. seeds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49(10): 5046-5051

The changes of mono- and oligosaccharides, carboxylic acids, purine alkaloids, and fatty acid composition, and of aspartic endoproteinase activity, were analyzed during seed development in two varieties of cacao (Theobroma cacao). The majority of the components examined either decreased or accumulated steadily in concentration during the second half of bean development. Sucrose is the major sugar in the mature embryo, whereas fructose and glucose are at higher concentrations in the endosperm tissue. Considerable amounts of malate are found in the endosperm, whereas citrate is the dominant carboxylic acid in the embryo. A major change in the fatty acid composition occurs in the young embryo when the proportion of stearic acid increases rapidly at the expense of linoleic acid, which is reduced from about 18 to 3%. Theobromine is the dominant purine alkaloid (ca. 80%), and caffeine appears only toward the end of seed maturity. Aspartic endoproteinase activity increases rapidly during embryo expansion, reaching a maximal activity before final maturity. The results are discussed in conjunction with physiological changes in developing seeds, and the potential contributions of the compounds analyzed for cocoa quality.


PMID: 11600064

DOI: 10.1021/jf010620z

Other references

Hamar, M.; Simionescu, V., 1967: New data on variability and geographical distribution of Crocidura Wagler (1832) (Insectiyora) in the Socialist Republic of Romania. Comunicarile de Zoologie Bucuresti, 5: 115-125

Lund William R., 1993: Summary of Holocene surface faulting and fault segmentation, Wasatch fault zone, Utah. Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America 25(5): 112

Lindberg, K., 1940: Cyclopoides (Crustacea Copepodes) de l'Inde. Records of the Indian Museum, 42: 519-526

Vallera, D.A.; Brechbiel, M.W.; Burns, L.J.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, A.; Dusenbery, K.E.; Clohisy, D.R.; Vitetta, E.S., 2005: Radioimmunotherapy of CD22-expressing Daudi tumors in nude mice with a 90Y-labeled anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody. A study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of a high affinity, rapidly internalizing anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody for selectively delivering high-energy (90)Y radioactivity to B lymphoma cells in vivo. The antibody, RFB4, was readily labe...

Danielson, J.; Matsuda, T.; Hanumadass, M.L., 1989: The "sponge deformity" after tangential excision and grafting of burns. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 84(6): 1006-1006

Gerkowicz, T.; Chrzastek-Spruch, H.; Skórzyńska, M.; Boczar, A.; Jakubowska, M., 1984: Serological conflict in the maternal phenotype system Rh-D-/-D- and the neonatal system -D-/cde. Pediatria Polska 59(3): 257-259

Vanyurikhina L.T.; Orlova A.V., 1987: Isolation of red cells for measuring their protease activity. Laboratornoe Delo (12): 901-902

Locati E.; Schwartz P.J.; Moss A.J.; Crampton R.S., 1986: Long term survival after left cervico thoracic sympathectomy in high risk long qt syndrome patients with refractory ventricular arrhythmias. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 7(2 SUPPL A): 235A

Aptekmann, K.P.; Artoni, S.M.B.; Stefanini, M.A.; Orsi, M.A., 2001: Morphometric analysis of the intestine of domestic quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) treated with different levels of dietary calcium. The aim of this study was to perform a morphometric analysis of the various parts of the intestine of the domestic quail. Twenty-four female quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) aged 37 weeks were used and accommodated in laying cages for 12 weeks....

Bøving, M.Kusk.; Pedersen, L.Nørum.; Møller, J.Kjølseth., 2009: Eight-plex PCR and liquid-array detection of bacterial and viral pathogens in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with suspected meningitis. We here report on the development of a novel multiplex PCR with product detection in a Luminex 100 suspension array system. The assay covers the nine most important bacterial and viral pathogens found in Danish meningitis patients. The microorgani...