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Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Tetrahymena thermophila tolerate glyphosate but not a commercial herbicidal formulation

, : Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Tetrahymena thermophila tolerate glyphosate but not a commercial herbicidal formulation. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 70(4): 731-738

A study was conducted to test the sensitivity of T. thermophila (using both the proliferative and conjugative phases) and I. multifiliis (at 3 developmental forms, i.e. trophonts, encysted tomonts and free-swimming infectious theronts) to glyphosate and Roundup after 5, 15 and 45 minutes exposure. The concentration test range for Roundup was 11 mM to 5 micro M glyphosate, and for Pestanal (a technical-grade, acidic glyphosate), the concentration test range was 60 mM to 30 micro M glyphosate. T. thermophila proliferated with no apparent mortality for up to 48 h in 60 mM neutralized, technical-grade glyphosate, 50% proteose peptone media (SPP). In Roundup with SPP, T. thermophila survived reproducibly only at 0.34 mM glyphosate or less. Conjugative or proliferative phase showed some adaptive capabilities and differences, however, 100% of each well of ciliates typically either survived or suffered mortality. T. thermophila in Roundup tolerated an equivalent glyphosate concentration that was ~0.5% that of technical-grade glyphosate. In 30 mM neutralized, technical-grade glyphosate, free-swimming and encysted I. multifiliis suffered 100% mortality in less than 5 minutes, whereas untreated I. multifiliis controls continued to develop and proliferate for over 24 h. Theronts stopped moving in 30 mM technical-grade glyphosate and were not revived by dilution after one hour; other developmental forms did not adhere to the microtitre plates or encyst, and 24 h later were undergoing degradation, with bacteria often present. Those that had been given time to adhere prior to treatment with 30 mM glyphosate typically became detached with the treatment. In 15 mM technical-grade glyphosate, hatching of progeny theronts was delayed for 24 h; theront tolerated 15 mM technical-grade glyphosate but moved very slowly. Glyphosate <=7.5 mM had little apparent effect on I. multifiliis. Roundup dilutions containing as little as 0.34 mM glyphosate reproducibly killed 100% of all I. multifiliis developmental forms. Exposure of encysted I. multifiliis to Roundup containing 0.34 mM glyphosate for just 10 minutes made them incapable of producing theronts. Roundup dilutions that contained no more than 0.09 mM glyphosate allowed survival of encysted and hatching theronts, but adherence of trophonts was problematic and development proceeded within aberrant, non-adherent grape-like clusters. Directly treated theronts suffered 100% mortality in diluted Roundup containing 0.09 mM glyphosate, but did survive 0.04 mM. Roundup was 100 times more lethal to I. multifiliis than were equivalent glyphosate concentrations of neutralized Pestanal.


PMID: 12677384

DOI: 10.1007/s00128-003-0044-y

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