+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Prion biology relevant to bovine spongiform encephalopathy

, : Prion biology relevant to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Journal of Animal Science 83(6): 1455-1476

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk are a threat to agriculture and natural resources, as well as a human health concern. Both diseases are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), or prion diseases, caused by autocatalytic conversion of endogenously encoded prion protein (PrP) to an abnormal, neurotoxic conformation designated PrP[superscript sc]. Most mammalian species are susceptible to TSE, which, despite a range of species-linked names, is caused by a single highly conserved protein, with no apparent normal function. In the simplest sense, TSE transmission can occur because PrP[superscript sc] is resistant to both endogenous and environmental proteinases, although many details remain unclear. Questions about the transmission of TSE are central to practical issues such as livestock testing, access to international livestock markets, and wildlife management strategies, as well as intangible issues such as consumer confidence in the safety of the meat supply. The majority of BSE cases seem to have been transmitted by feed containing meat and bone meal from infected animals. In the United Kingdom, there was a dramatic decrease in BSE cases after neural tissue and, later, all ruminant tissues were banned from ruminant feed. However, probably because of heightened awareness and widespread testing, there is growing evidence that new variants of BSE are arising "spontaneously," suggesting ongoing surveillance will continue to find infected animals. Interspecies transmission is inefficient and depends on exposure, sequence homology, TSE donor strain, genetic polymorphism of the host, and architecture of the visceral nerves if exposure is by an oral route. Considering the low probability of interspecies transmission, the low efficiency of oral transmission, and the low prion levels in nonnervous tissues, consumption of conventional animal products represents minimal risk. However, detection of rare events is challenging, and TSE literature is characterized by subsequently unsupported claims of species barriers or absolute tissue safety. This review presents an overview of TSE and summarizes recent research on pathogenesis and transmission.


PMID: 15890824

Other references

Watabe J.; Bernstein H., 1985: The mutagenicity of bile acids using a fluctuation test. The mutagenicity of bile acids was detected by a fluctuation test using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and TA98 as tester strains. Cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid were mutagenic in this test while lithoc...

Sapunar P.J.; Bahamondes M.L., 1995: Humeral hydatidosis complicated by fracture, bacterial infection, fistula and extraoseous location. The case is reported of a 63-year-old male, from a rural area of Chile, who had echinococcosis diagnosed 8 months after presenting with a fracture of his right humerus. Following 2 courses of albendazole, the condition of the patient continued wit...

Nilsson, S.; Holmgren, S.; Fange, R., 1983: Autonomic nerve functions in fish. Unknown

Breshears Wheeler, J.; Rueschhoff, A., 2013: Oral health workforce. Ncsl Legisbrief 21(9): 1-2

Moscovici, M.I.nescu, C.O.iscu, C.F.tea, O.H.nganu, L., 1993: Exopolysaccharide biosynthesis by a fast-producing strain of Aureobasidium pullulans. The mutant strain Aureobasidium pullulans ICCF-68 was able to produce in batch fermentation on a glucose medium of 80 g/l, exopolysaccharide at high volumetric productivity and final concentration (1.05 g/1.h and 50.2 g/1, respectively) . A specif...

Anonymous, 1950: HORMONES of the digestive tract. Nature 166(4226): 714-715

Ray, W.Jr, 1975: A study of pyruvate-induced inhibition in the dogfish lactate dehydrogenase system. Mechanistic comparison with the iodination of pyruvate. Biochemistry, Pa(20): 4229-4237

Shrivastava, R.K.; Siegel, H., 1984: The role of tricyclics and benzodiazepine compounds in the treatment of irritable gut syndrome and peptic ulcer disease. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 20(4): 616-621

Yoshida, T.K.namitsu, K., 1978: Growth patterns appearing in an. Nippon Ringaku kaishi Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society 60(6): 216-220

Neumann, U.; Bührer, C.; Blankenstein, O.; Kühnen, P.; Raile, K., 2017: Primary sulphonylurea therapy in a newborn with transient neonatal diabetes attributable to a paternal uniparental disomy 6q24 (UPD6). Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism