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Chemotherapy of extragonadal germ cell tumors

, : Chemotherapy of extragonadal germ cell tumors. Journal of Clinical Oncology 3(3): 316-325

Forty-nine patients with histologically proven germ cell tumors arising in extragonadal sites were retrospectively reviewed. Included in the review were an additional seven patients with undifferentiated tumors with a pathologic appearance compatible with that of a germ cell tumor and elevated levels of serum biomarkers (beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin [beta-HCG] +/- alpha-fetoprotein [AFP]. Nineteen patients had a pure seminoma arising in an extragonadal site, whereas 30 patients had nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Seven patients had primary undifferentiated tumors with elevated levels of serum biomarkers. Sixteen (84%) of the 19 patients with pure extragonadal seminomas with normal levels of serum AFP are alive and free of disease. Eighteen of these 19 patients received platinum-containing regimens and four had received prior chemotherapy that failed. Of the patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, 12 (40%) of the 30 are alive and free of disease with vinblastine/bleomycin +/- cisplatin (13 patients) or CISCAII (cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin) (nine patients) alternating CISCAII/VBIV (eight patients) chemotherapy. None of the seven patients with undifferentiated germ cell tumors are alive and free of disease. Three of the five patients with pure anterior mediastinal endodermal sinus tumors treated with chemotherapy remain alive and free of disease. Of the seven patients with choriocarcinomas arising in extragonadal sites, three are alive and free of disease. A classification for patients with extragonadal germ cell tumors incorporating site of origin, histology, and likelihood of being truly extragonadal is proposed. The implications of this classification are discussed.


PMID: 2579212

DOI: 10.1200/jco.1985.3.3.316

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