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Ecology and biology of the grasshopper hieroglyphus nigrorepletus orthoptera acrididae part 1 egg pods diapause prolonged viability and annual hatching rhythm


, : Ecology and biology of the grasshopper hieroglyphus nigrorepletus orthoptera acrididae part 1 egg pods diapause prolonged viability and annual hatching rhythm. Zeitschrift fuer Angewandte Zoologie 63(2): 171-186

Eggs are laid in soil about 4-13 cm below ground surface and in earthy, cylindrical pods (length 11-26 mm, width 7-11 mm), each containing about 37-82 eggs. Sun-dried egg-pods weigh about 0.58-1.37 gm (mean 0.97). Eggs are subcylindrical, with rounded ends and are about 4.6-5.3 mm long and 1.3-1.7 mm wide. The hexagonal egg-sculpturing of the egg-chorion and the micropylar canals are briefly described. There is a single annual generation. Eggs laid in Aug.-Sept. undergo a long diapause of 10-11 mo., and hatch next June-Aug. after adequate monsoon showers. In a small proportion of eggs (about 10%), the diapause is prolonged to about 23 mo., and eggs hatch in June-July of the 2nd yr. Thus 2 types of diapause (a "one-year" diapause and a "two-year" diapause) occur. Several experiments were carried out on more than 600 eggs-pods to determine the role of moisture in breaking egg diapause. If no moisture is provided to the pods, eggs fail to hatch. For successful egg development, the application of moisture at the right time (June-Aug.) is essential. There is an annual endogenous hatching rhythm. With application of moisture at the right time, hatching occurs within 2-5 wk in the "one-year" diapause eggs, and after another 12 mo. in the "two-year" diapause eggs. When moisture is applied at other times, development and hatching are progressively delayed. In egg-pods kept dry for 3 or 4 yr, the eggs retain their viability, and on application of moisture they develop and hatch successfully up to 5 yr after laying.

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