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Hemorrhage and hemosiderin

, : Hemorrhage and hemosiderin. Journal of Submicroscopic Cytology 11(2): 271-291

Whenever, wherever and however hemorrhage occurs, certain basic mechanisms (with minor site dependent variations) are deployed by the organism to dispose off extravasated erythrocytes. The key mechanism here is the phagocytosis of erythrocytes (erythrophagocytosis and of products of lysis (erythrocyte ghosts and Hb) by macrophages and other cells leading to the formation of heterophageosomes and heterolysosomes where digestion of injested material ensures. This leads to the formation of 3 types of lysosomal bodies: myelinosomes containing whorled osmiophilic membranes, siderosomes containing electron-dense Fe-containing particles (i.e., hemosiderin) and myelinosiderosomes containing myelinoid membranes and hemosiderin. There has been much controversy about the nature and chemical composition of hemosiderin found after hemorrhage. Ultrastructural studies show that this is a pigment derived by digestion of Hb in the lysosome (siderosome) while electron probe X-ray analytical studies indicate that hemosiderin is essentially a condensate of hydrated ferric oxide and that any other element (e.g., P or S) present probably reflects the presence of undigested organic material in the siderosome.


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