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Phenology of diapause induction in a maryland usa population of the face fly musca autumnalis de geer

, : Phenology of diapause induction in a maryland usa population of the face fly musca autumnalis de geer. Journal of Agricultural Entomology 3(4): 297-303

The physiological condition, either gonoactive or diapausing, of face flies, Musca autumnalis DeGeer, from cattle farms in central Maryland was characterised during two fall seasons. Diapause in both male and female flies commenced in early September, with the proportion of specimens committed to diapause increasing gradually through the month. By mid-October, nearly all females (i.e., > 85%) and most males (> 70%) active in pastures were in diapause. On a given date, diapause occurred in similar proportions of male and female flies irrespective of sample site or farm, although diapause in males was more variable. Diapause in both males and females was strongly correlated (r = .gtoreq. 0.89) with Julian date, daylength, number of days < 13 h daylight and number days since temperature < C; degree day accumulations < C and > C were less well correlated. A polynomial curve fitted to mean percent diapause by number of days since < 13 h daylight very closely approximates the proportion of face flies in diapause (r2 = 0.96) for two years of data.


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