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Sequential mechanism of calcium binding and translocation in sarcoplasmic reticulum atpase


, : Sequential mechanism of calcium binding and translocation in sarcoplasmic reticulum atpase. Journal of Biological Chemistry 262(34): 16338-16342

Cooperative calcium binding (apparent Kd = 1.04 .times. 10-6 M) to the ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles occurs with a maximal stoichiometry of 2 mols of divalent cation/mol of enzyme in the absence of ATP. The bound calcium is distributed into two pools which undergo fast or slow isotopic exchange, respectively. The two pools retain a 1:1 molar ratio under various conditions and are both located within a protein crevice, as suggested by their cooperative interaction and exchange kinetics. Following enzyme phosphorylation by ATP, both pools of bound calcium are "internalized" (cannot be displaced by quench reagents). If following 45Ca2+ binding, isotopic dilution is obtained in the medium by adding 40Ca2+ with ATP, internalization of both pools of bound 45Ca2+ (2 mol/mol of phosphoenzyme) is still observed within the first enzyme cycle. When the cycle is reversed by addition of excess ADP soon after ATP, only half of the internalized 45Ca2+ is released from the enzyme into the medium outside the vesicles, while the other half remains with the vesicles. If half of the bound 45Ca2+ is exchanged (fast exchange) with 40Ca2+ previous to the addition of ATP, none of the remaining 45Ca2+ is released outside the vesicles upon reversal of the enzyme cycle. Therefore, the pool of bound calcium which undergoes slower exchange with the outside medium, is the first to be released inside the vesicles upon enzyme phosphorylation. A sequential mechanism of calcium binding and translocation is proposed, that accounts for binding cooperativity and exchange kinetics, presteady state transients following addition of ATP, and the Ca2+ concentration dependence of ATPase activity in steady state.

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