+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

The influence of chloride ions on rat renal outer medullary cell volume

, : The influence of chloride ions on rat renal outer medullary cell volume. Journal of Physiology (Cambridge) 293: 485-500

Slices of rat renal outer medulla were incubated in media made hyperosmotic (540 and 1055 m-osmol/kg H2O) by the addition of urea, and containing variable concentrations of Cl (90, 144, 189 and 215 mM) and constant concentrations of Na (180 mM) and K (5.9 mM). A small number of incubations were conducted in the presence of 100 mM Na. Changes in cell volume during incubation were calculated on the basis of initial and final slice weight and inulin space. The capacity of cells to shrink in response to extracellular osmotic stress was related principally to the external Cl concentration rather than to osmolality, increases in concentration being associated with enhanced shrinkage. Shrinkage was accompanied by net loss of cellular Cl. The ratio between intra- and extracellular Cl concentration remained constant in all media. In media containing low Cl concentration (90 mM), reduction of media Na concentration to 100 mM enhanced shrinkage. This effect was not observed when medium Cl concentration was greater than 90 mM. Ethacrynic acid-cysteine (1 mM) significantly impaired the shrinkage response to extracellular osmotic stress and caused cell swelling in media of relatively low Cl concentration and osmolality. It did not abolish the dependency of cell volume upon Cl concentration. There was a marked reduction in the net amount of Cl lost from cells. Ethacrynic acid-cysteine caused an increase in cellular Na content only in media containing 540 m-osmol/kg H2O and Cl concentrations less than 215 mM. Ouabain (1 mM) inhibited cell shrinkage to a lesser extent than ethacrynic acid-cysteine in all media except that causing the greatest shrinkage under control conditions (215 mM Cl/1055 m-osmol/kg H2O). An ouabain-sensitive process may play an increasingly important role in Cl-related cell shrinkage as this becomes more pronounced. Cl ions influence cell volume both through their effective external osmotic pressure and by means of Cl-specific process; the latter is associated with net loss of cellular Cl. A dependence of this loss upon Na/K exchange-linked metabolism is inferred, but the present findings do not permit the active or passive nature of the extrusion to be defined.


Other references

Cavusoglu, E.; Chopra, V.; Gupta, A.; Battala, V.R.; Poludasu, S.; Eng, C.; Marmur, J.D., 2010: Relation between red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and all-cause mortality at two years in an unselected population referred for coronary angiography. Red blood cell distribution width (RDW), a numerical measure of the variability in size of circulating erythrocytes, has recently been shown to be a strong predictor of adverse outcomes in patients with heart failure and in patients with prior myo...

Lindberg, Hakan, 1932: Zur Kenntnis der ost-asiatischen Homopteren Weitere Ergebnisse einer von Y Wuorentaus im Jahre 1917 unternommenen For-schungsreise. Based on an examination of material in the Helsingfors Mus., the following are added to the list of homopteran spp. collected from the region cited Idiocerus suturalis* (p.3), Usuri; Paramesus orientalis [male]* (p.4), Vladivostok; Paralimnus 13-p...

Lee, J.Yong.; Byun, J.Yul.; Shim, S.Shine.; Lee, S.Won., 2010: Outcomes after endoscopic sinus surgery for unilateral versus bilateral chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis. Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is a safe and reliable procedure for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and nasal polyposis (NP). Although most cases of CRS with NP occur bilaterally, we occasionally encounter patients with unilateral si...

Hofmann, P.B., 2003: Long history of the last transfer. Hastings Center Report 33(4): 4-4

Young, L., 2000: Medicare beneficiary access to home care decreases further. Home Care Provider 5(2): 52-53

Freeman, B.D.; Kennedy, C.; Robertson, T.Elizabeth.; Coopersmith, C.M.; Schallom, M.; Sona, C.; Cracchiolo, L.; Schuerer, D.J.E.; Boyle, W.A.; Buchman, T.G., 2008: Tracheostomy protocol: experience with development and potential utility. To examine the feasibility and potential utility of a tracheostomy protocol based on a standardized approach to ventilator weaning. Prospective, observational data collection. Academic medical center. Surgical intensive care unit patients requirin...

Cavatorta, F.; Queirolo, C.; Caraceni, C.E.; Albalustri, G., 1974: Bladder lavage in the diagnosis of urinary tract infections. Archivio "e. Maragliano" di Patologia E Clinica 30(1): 31-40

Bretan, M.; Oblatt, E.; Rona, G.; Kerenyi, N., 1955: Kidney changes in experimentally induced steroid (cortisone) diabetes; contributions on the pathogenesis of diabetic angiopathy. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Verdauungs- und Stoffwechselkrankheiten 15(6): 257-268

Chian, E.S.; DeWalle, F.B., 1976: Organics. Journal - Water Pollution Control Federation 48(6): 1042-1077

Breer, H.; Wanner, I.; Strotmann, J., 1996: Molecular genetics of mammalian olfaction. Olfaction plays a crucial role in the survival of most animal species; it is remarkable in its ability to recognize and discriminate numerous airborne molecules, yet is one of the least understood senses. The advent of molecular genetic approaches...