geoscience.net logo
+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Flowers fruits and pollen of florissantia an extinct malvalean genus from the eocene and oligocene of western north america


, : Flowers fruits and pollen of florissantia an extinct malvalean genus from the eocene and oligocene of western north america. American Journal of Botany 79(9): 996-1008

Compressed flowers and fruits of Florissantia (Lesquereux) comb. nov. from the latest Eocene of Colorado and Montana and from the middle Eocene to early Oligocene of Oregon were reinvestigated using the type material and more recently collected specimens. Two additional species, Florissantia quilchenensis (Mathewes and Brooke) comb. nov. from the middle Eocene of British Columbia [Canada] and Washington [USA] and F. ashwillii sp. nov. from the middle Eocene to early Oligocene of Oregon, are also recognized on the basis of differences in perianth and anther morphology. Florissantia flowers are borne on long (up to 3 cm) pedicels and possess a large (2.3-5.3 cm diam), shallowly campanulate, five-lobed, persistent gamosepalous calyx. The fertile parts include a superior, pentagonal ovary, a single style with five stigmas, and a cycle of five stamens with bifurcate filaments topped by stout anthers or half anthers. Pollen removed from the anthers is oblate, 20-32 .mu.m equatorial diam, 3(-4)-colporate, with short colpi and reticulate ornamentation. Although formerly placed in Porana (Convolvulaceae) and Holmskioldia (Verbenaceae), the newly recognized characters of floral and pollen morphology demonstrate that the genus belongs within the Malvales as an extinct genus possessing features found today in Tiliaceae, Bombacaceae, and Sterculiaceae. Recognizing that there is much overlap among extant genera of these families, and that the circumscription of these families is in need of systematic revision, the fossil is tentatively placed in the Sterculiaceae. Florissantia flowers exhibit a syndrome of features suggestive of insect or bird pollination, while the fruits, provided with a large, persistent, membranous calyx, appear to be well adapted for wind dispersal. Dismissal of this and other purported verbenaceous fossils from the Verbenaceae casts doubt on the presence of Verbenaceae in the early Tertiary of North America.

US$19.90

DOI: 10.2307/2444909


Other references

Tongacan, A.L., 1973: Damar. Defines 'damar' - in commerce, a term practically restricted to resins obtained from the genera Balanocarpus, Hopea, Shorea and Vateria (Dipterocarpaceae) and the genus Canarium (Burseraceae) - and lists 39 Philippine trees that are poss...

Anonymous, 2012: Tectonic Evolution of the Cretaceous Ankara Ophiolitic Melange during the Late Cretaceous to pre-Miocene Interval in Central Anatolia, Turkey. The chaotic tectonic belt, which is distinguished in northern Anatolia, is called the -Ankara Accretionary Complex- in the Ankara region, central Anatolia. The belt is differentiated into three imbricated tectonic subbelts, namely, pre-Triassic me...

Weber, T.; Al-Munajjed, A.A.; Verkerke, G.J.; Dendorfer, S.; Renkawitz, T., 2014: Influence of minimally invasive total hip replacement on hip reaction forces and their orientations. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is becoming increasingly popular. Supporters claim that the main advantages of MIS total hip replacement (THR) are less pain and a faster rehabilitation and recovery. Critics claim that safety and efficacy of MIS a...

McKeen, W.E.; Rimmer, S.R., 1973: Initial penetration process in powdery mildew infection of susceptible barley leaves. Barley leaves induced germ tubes of conidia of Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei to grow longitudinally on the leaves and stimulated the formation of appressoria. The papilla, a host reaction to the fungus, began to form in the epidermal cell below t...

Davis Nevin W., 2005: Recent discoveries in the Chestnut Ridge cave system, Bath Co., VA. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 67(3): 198

Kasasa, S.C.; Soory, M., 1998: The effect of PDGF, TGF-beta and IGF in combination on androgen metabolism by fibroblasts. The aim of this investigation is to study growth factor combinations (PDGF/IGF PDGF/TGF-beta and TGF-beta/IGF) on the metabolism of 2 androgen substrates 14C-testosterone/14C-4-androstenedione to the matrix stimulatory androgen 5alpha-dihydrotesto...

Mccallum, B.; Fetch, T., 2001: The appearance of wheat stripe rust in Manitoba and Saskatchewan in 2000. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 23(2): 192, June

Phillips, I.; Warren, C.; Waterworth, P.M., 1978: Determination of antibiotic sensitivities by the sensititer system. The Sensititer system provides antibiotics dried in microtiter trays in appropriate concentrations for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) when organisms are added in liquid culture medium and incubated overnight. Results...

Kossoy L.R.; Hill G.A.; Parker R.A.; Rogers B.J.; Dalglish C.M.S.; Herbert C.M.IIi; Wentz A.C., 1989: Luteinizing hormone and ovulation timing in a therapeutic donor insemination program using frozen semen. A series of 110 therapeutic donor insemination cycles was analyzed to determine the impact on fecundity when a urinary luteinizing hormone detection kit was used to plan inseminations. To prevent the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, f...

Huang, W-Chao.; Chen, Y-Ju.; Chien, C-Liang.; Kashima, H.; Lin, K-Chung., 2010: Constraint-induced movement therapy as a paradigm of translational research in neurorehabilitation: Reviews and prospects. There is an increasing awareness about the importance of translation from basic scientific findings into practical application for efficiently improving human health, especially in the pharmaceutical industry. In the field of neurorehabilitation,...