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Forensic drug testing for opiates, III. Urinary excretion rates of morphine and codeine following codeine administration

, : Forensic drug testing for opiates, III. Urinary excretion rates of morphine and codeine following codeine administration. Journal of Analytical Toxicology 15(4): 161-166

The urinary excretion profile of free and conjugated codeine and morphine was determined by GC/MS for four healthy male subjects after intramuscular administration of 60- and 120-mg doses of codeine. Codeine and metabolites were rapidly excreted with the majority of drug appearing in the first 24 h. No dose-related differences in metabolism were observed. The initial ratio of total codeine to total morphine was substantially greater than 1.0 but declined over time. For two of the four subjects, the codeine-morphine ratio declined below 1.0 late in the elimination phase. With a 300-ng/mL cutoff, one subject tested positive on more than one occasion for total morphine and negative for codeine during the terminal elimination phase. The data indicate that urine codeine-morphine ratios are not reliable indices of the type of opiate exposure.


PMID: 1943064

DOI: 10.1093/jat/15.4.161

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