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Formation of a toxic metabolite from gentamicin by a hepatic cytosolic fraction

, : Formation of a toxic metabolite from gentamicin by a hepatic cytosolic fraction. Biochemical Pharmacology 43(8): 1835-1839

We have demonstrated recently that incubation of the aminoglycoside gentamicin with an hepatic post-mitochondrial fraction produces a compound toxic to sensory cells from the inner ear in short-term culture; in contrast, the parent aminoglycoside was non-toxic in vitro (Huang MY and Schacht J, Biochem Pharmacol 40: R11-R14, 1990). In the present study, we investigated the subcellular distribution of the enzymatic activity and the nature of the metabolite. Isolated outer hair cells from the guinea pig cochlea were used to assay for cytotoxicity. The enzyme(s) responsible for this novel reaction of aminoglycosides was exclusively localized to the cytosolic fraction of guinea pig liver. No activity was detected in nuclear, lysosomal/mitochondrial or microsomal preparations. Furthermore, the toxin-forming enzymatic activity was associated with the high molecular weight fraction of the cytosol and did not require low molecular weight components. Filtration of the toxin through molecular weight cut-off membranes showed a molecular size of approximately 500. This evidence is consistent with the toxin being a gentamicin derivative.


PMID: 1575776

DOI: 10.1016/0006-2952(92)90718-x

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