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In vitro regeneration in trifolium 1. direct somatic embryogenesis in trifolium rubens l

, : In vitro regeneration in trifolium 1. direct somatic embryogenesis in trifolium rubens l. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 15(1): 33-46

The origin and development of zygotic and somatic embryos of Trifolium rubens L. was studied with the aid of paraffin sections and light microscopy. Zygotic embryos were collected, fixed and prepared daily from one to ten days after cross-pollination. Somatic embryos were obtained by plating petiole sections on modified L2 medium with 0.015 mg l-1 picloram and 0.1 mg l-1 6-BAP. Cultured petioles were collected and fixed daily from one to 25 days after plating. Two regions in the vascular bundle sheath of cultured petioles gave rise to callus. The first region was adjacent to the phloem fibers and produced friable callus. The second region gave rise to compact callus that was connected to the fascicular cambium. Somatic embryos originated from single cells in the cortex directly without intervening callus formation and from single cells in the friable callus. In addition, embryos arose from meristematic regions in compact callus. Many early stages of embryogenesis (one, two and four-celled stages) were observed in the cortex and friable callus. Zygotic embryogenesis in Trifolium differs from other legumes in that the suspensor is short and has a broad attachment. This arrangement was observed in zygotic embryos of T. rubens and in many somatic embryos. However, a continuum of somatic embryogenesis was observed were some young embryos had a Trifolium suspensor-like arrangement while others were attached to a long narrow suspensor-like structure more characteristic of Medicago.


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