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1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate cause differential activation of Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent isoforms of protein kinase C in rat colonocytes

, : 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate cause differential activation of Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent isoforms of protein kinase C in rat colonocytes. Journal of Clinical Investigation 95(5): 2215-2221

Considerable evidence that alterations in protein kinase C (PKC) are intimately involved in important physiologic and pathologic processes in many cells, including colonic epithelial cells, has accumulated. In this regard, phorbol esters, a clam of potent PKC activators, have been found to induce a number of cellular events in normal or transformed colonocytes. In addition, our laboratory has demonstrated that the major active metabolite of vitamin D-3, 1,25(OH)-2D-3, also rapidly (seconds-minutes) activated PKC and increased intracellular calcium in isolated rat colonocytes. These acute responses, however, were lost in vitamin D deficiency and partially restored with the in vivo repletion of 1,25 (OH)-2D-3. The Ca-2+-independent or novel isoforms of PKC expressed in the rat colon and the isoform-specific responses of PKC to acute treatment with phorbol esters or 1,25(OH)-2D-3 have not been previously characterized. Moreover, the effects of vitamin D status on PKC isoform expression, distribution, and response to agonists are also unknown. In the present experiments, in addition to PKC-alpha, rat colonocytes were found to express the novel isoforms delta, epsilon, and zeta by Western blotting using isoform-specific PKC antibodies. The tumor-promoting phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate, caused time- and concentration-dependent translocations of all these isoforms except PKC-zeta. In vitamin D deficiency, there were no alterations in colonic PKC isoform expression but significant changes in the subcellular distribution of PKC-alpha, -delta, and -zeta. Acute treatment of colonocytes from D-sufficient, but not D-deficient, rats with 1,25 (OH) 2D3 caused a rapid transient redistribution of only PKC-alpha from the soluble to the particulate fraction. The alterations in PKC isoform distribution and PKC-alpha responsiveness to 1,25(OH)-2D-3 in vitamin D deficiency were partially, but significantly, restored with 5-7 d in vivo repletion of this secosteroid. Both 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate and 1,25(OH)-2D-3 activated endogenous PKC, as assessed by inhibition of myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate back-phosphorylation by exogenous PKC. These studies indicate that PKC-alpha, -delta, and/or -epsilon likely mediate important phorbol ester-stimulated events described in the rat colon. In contrast, PKC-alpha is implicated in the rapid (s-min) PKC-dependent events initiated by 1,25(OH)-2D-3 in rat colonocytes.


PMID: 7738187

DOI: 10.1172/JCI117911

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