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Anti-implantation activity of antiestrogens and mifepristone

, : Anti-implantation activity of antiestrogens and mifepristone. Contraception. 54(4): 253-258

To develop a better postcoital contraceptive, the following antiestrogens were tested for their anti-implantation activity in the rat: anordrin, anordiol, tamoxifen, ICI 182,780, and RU 39411. The compounds were administered orally or subcutaneously (sc) to female rats on days 1, 2, and 3 of pregnancy. All the antiestrogens tested were 100% effective in preventing blastocyst implantation. The lowest effective doses when administered orally were 10, 1.25, 0.062, 6.0 (partially effective), and 0.01 mg/kg/day, respectively. The estimated median effective doses (ED-50) were 5.60, 0.40, 0.035, 5.40, and 0.0074 mg/kg/day, respectively. When administered sc, the minimum effective doses in preventing blastocyst implantation in all animals were 2.0, 0.1, 0.1, 0.1, and 0.01 mg/kg/day, respectively. Anordrin, anordiol, and ICI 182,780 were more potent when administered sc; whereas tamoxifen and R U 39411 were effective at similar doses when administered parenterally or orally. RU 39411 was the most potent among the antiestrogens tested and should be evaluated as a potential postcoital contraceptive. The administration of mifepristone, an antiprogestin, at a dose of 8 mg/kg/day blocked blastocyst implantation in all treated animals; whereas at a dose of 4 mg/kg/day or lower, the drug was ineffective. These findings confirm that estradiol and progesterone are essential for blastocyst implantation in the rat. The capacity of mifepristone to potentiate the anti-implantation activity of the antiestrogens was also determined. The combination of a noneffective dose of each of the antiestrogens (anordrin, anordiol, and tamoxifen), and RU39411, with mifepristone at a non-effective dose, prevented pregnancy, demonstrating that an antiprogestin and antiestrogen act synergistically in blocking blastocyst implantation in the rat. The antiestrogen compounds whose anti-implantation activities were potentiated by mifepristone were found to possess significant estrogenic activity, when assayed by measuring the increase in the uterine weights of ovariectomized rats. The only exception was ICI 182,780, which showed no estrogenic activity in the uterine weight bioassay and did not act synergistically with mifepristone in blocking blastocyst implantation. Estradiol was effective in preventing pregnancy at a dose of 1 mu-g/kg/day. The combination of non-effective doses of estradiol and mifepristone did not prevent pregnancy. The findings that mifepristone potentiates the anti-implantation activity of those antiestrogens with intrinsic agonist activity suggests that the synergistic effect may be a unique property of this class of antiestrogens.


PMID: 8922879

DOI: 10.1016/s0010-7824(96)00196-5

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