+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Determinants of half-site spacing preferences that distinguish AP-1 and ATF/CREB bZIP domains

, : Determinants of half-site spacing preferences that distinguish AP-1 and ATF/CREB bZIP domains. Nucleic Acids Research 23(13): 2531-2537

The AP-1 and ATF/CREB families of eukaryotic transcription factors are dimeric DNA-binding proteins that contain the bZIP structural motif. The AP-1 and ATF/CREB proteins are structurally related and recognize identical half-sites (TGAC), but they differ in their requirements for half-site spacing. AP-1 proteins such as yeast GCN4 preferentially bind to sequences with overlapping half-sites, whereas ATF/CREB proteins bind exclusively to sequences with adjacent half-sites. Here we investigate the distinctions between AP-1 and ATF/CREB proteins by determining the DNA-binding properties of mutant and hybrid proteins. First, analysis of GCN4-ATF1 hybrid proteins indicates that a short surface spanning the basic and fork regions of the bZIP domain is the major determinant of half-site spacing. Replacement of two GCN4 residues on this surface (Ala244 and Leu247) by their ATF1 counterparts largely converts GCN4 into a protein with ATF/CREB specificity. Secondly, analysis of a Fos derivative containing the GCN4 leucine zipper indicates that Fos represents a novel intermediate between AP-1 and ATF/CREB proteins. Thirdly, we examine the effects of mutations in the invariant arginine residue of GCN4 (Arg243) that contacts the central base pair(s) of the target sites. While most mutations abolish DNA binding, substitution of a histidine residue results in a GCN4 derivative with ATF/CREB binding specificity. These results suggest that the AP-1 and ATF/CREB proteins differ in positioning a short surface that includes the invariant arginine and that AP-1 proteins may represent a subclass (and perhaps evolutionary offshoot) of ATF/CREB proteins that can tolerate overlapping half-sites.


PMID: 7630732

DOI: 10.1093/nar/23.13.2531

Other references

Abuladse, K.I., 1972: New taxonomic system of Taeniata (Cestoda). The Taeniidae is divided into the subfamilies Taeniinae and Echinococcinae, the former containing 11 genera and the latter 2. Echinococcus multilocularis is considered to belong to Alveococcus.

Inoue, T., 1986: The use and utilization of royal jelly and the evaluation of the medical efficacy of royal jelly in Japan. Four case histories are presented.

Kasper, D.L.; Eschenbach, D.A.; Hayes, M.E.; Holmes, K.K., 1978: Quantitative determination of the serum antibody response to the capsular poly saccharide of bacteroides fragilis ssp fragilis in women with pelvic inflammatory disease. The antibody response to the capsular polysaccharide of B. fragilis fragilis in women with acute pelvic inflammatory disease was quantitated using a sensitive radioactive antigen-binding assay. Antibody detected by this technique correlated highly...

Presles, J.M., 1971: Plasma cholinesterase activity in kwashiorkor. Cholinesterase activity was estimated in plasma of 30 children in Dakar, from 6 to 36 months, and of 125 children in a rural area, from 6 months to 10 years old, all apparently healthy. There was no significant difference between the groups, and t...

Imrie, B.C., 1995: Register of Australian grain legume cultivars. Vigna unguiculata L. (cowpea) cv. Holstein. This erect annual cowpea variety, registered in 1994, was derived by selection for disease resistance and agronomic traits in 4 generations in the progeny of the second backcross of California Blackeye 5 to a cross between Red Caloona and Californ...

Aydın, M.; Aydın, S.; Bacanlı, M.; Başaran, N., 2016: Aflatoxin levels in chronic hepatitis B patients with cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma in Balıkesir, Turkey. Aflatoxins, the secondary metabolites produced by species of naturally occurring Aspergilli, are commonly found in food such as cereals, dried fruits and juice, wine, beer and spices. They are hepatotoxic and are well known human carcinogens based...

Gorczyca, Jacek., 2004: Heteroptera Part 6b Plant bugs - Miridae, subfamily Phylinae Pluskwiaki roznoskrzydle - Heteroptera Zeszyt 6b Tasnikowate - Miridae, Podrodzina Phylinae. Polskie Towarzystwo Entomologiczne Klucze do Oznaczania Owadow Polski, 168: 1-83

Klein, F.; Jacob, D.; Bahra, M.; Pelzer, U.; Puhl, G.; Krannich, A.; Andreou, A.; Gül, S.; Guckelberger, O., 2014: Prognostic factors for long-term survival in patients with ampullary carcinoma: the results of a 15-year observation period after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Introduction. Although ampullary carcinoma has the best prognosis among all periampullary carcinomas, its long-term survival remains low. Prognostic factors are only available for a period of 10 years after pancreaticoduodenectomy. The aim of this...

Imamura Akitune, 1933: On crustal deformation in west-central Kii Peninsula. Proceedings of the Imperial Academy (Tokyo) 9(2): 39-42

Garrow, J.S.; Summerbell, C.D., 1995: Meta-analysis: effect of exercise, with or without dieting, on the body composition of overweight subjects. Objective: To determine if physical training conserves fat-tree mass (FFM) in overweight men or women during weight loss. Design: Journals published between 1966 and 1993 were searched by MEDLINE and by handsearch to obtain all reports on human su...