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Effect of gallbladder contraction induced cholagogia on the pharmacokinetic profile of a sustained-release theophylline formulation


, : Effect of gallbladder contraction induced cholagogia on the pharmacokinetic profile of a sustained-release theophylline formulation. Arzneimittel-Forschung 46(12): 1120-1126

Bile excretion might change the physiological milieu of the duodenum resulting in enhanced absorption of a drug due to increased solubilisation. This possible influence of bile salts following stimulation of gallbladder emptying via the release of cholecystokinin on the pharmacokinetics of a sustained-release theophylline (CAS 58-55-9) preparation (Bronchoretard) was evaluated in this study. An open, randomised, 3-way cross-over study in 12 healthy, non-smoking volunteers was selected to prove or reject this hypothesis. All subjects received 500 mg of the sustained-release theophylline formulation under two different cholagogia stimulating test conditions and under a fasting reference condition. A standard breakfast and i.m. application of cholecystokinin enabled a reproducible modulation of bile flow: a moderate and extreme contraction of the gallbladder could be induced after a standard breakfast and after i.m. application of cholecystokinin, respectively. Following a standard breakfast, gallbladder volumes were approximately halved (50.6%) compared to the baseline volume after 79 min. Injection of 0.3 mu-g/kg body weight cholecystokinin resulted in quick and complete gallbladder evacuation (94.6%) 36 min after the application of this cholagogue stimulus. Gallbladder volumes remained approximately constant under fasting conditions. This manipulation of bile flow did not influence concentration/time profiles of the sustained-release theophylline preparation compared to the fasting condition. Even almost complete evacuation of the gallbladder after application of cholecystokinin did not modify concentration/time profiles of theophylline in a relevant way. An unintentional rapid release of theophylline could be excluded for this sustained release formulation for all three treatments, as not a single case of dose-dumping was observed. Furthermore, in vitro dissolution investigations using surfactants are neither predictive of food effects nor bile influence on in vivo absorption at least for the sustained-release formulation tested.

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PMID: 9006785


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