geoscience.net logo
+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Light treatment for sleep disorders: Consensus report. II. Basic properties of circadian physiology and sleep regulation


, : Light treatment for sleep disorders: Consensus report. II. Basic properties of circadian physiology and sleep regulation. Journal of Biological Rhythms 10(2): 113-125

The rationale for the treatment of sleep disorders by scheduled exposure to bright light in seasonal affective disorder, jet lag, shift work, delayed sleep phase syndrome, and the elderly is, in part, based on a conceptual framework developed by nonclinical circadian rhythm researchers working with humans and other species. Some of the behavioral and physiological data that contributed to these concepts are reviewed, and some pitfalls related to their application to bright light treatment of sleep disorders are discussed. In humans and other mammals the daily light-dark (LD) cycle is a major synchronizer responsible for entrainment of circadian rhythms to the 24-h day, and phase response curves (PRCs) to light have been obtained. In humans, phase delays can be induced by light exposure scheduled before the minimum of the endogenous circadian rhythm of core body temperature (CBT), whereas phase advances are induced when light exposure is scheduled after the minimum of CBT. Since in healthy young subjects the minimum of CBT is located approximately 1 to 2 h before the habitual time of awakening, the most sensitive phase of the PRC to light coincides with sleep, and the timing of the monophasic sleep-wake cycle itself is a major determinant of light input to the pacemaker. The effects of light are mediated by the retinohypothalamic tract, and excitatory amino acids play a key role in the transduction of light information to the suprachiasmatic nuclei. LD cycles have direct "masking" effects on many variables, including sleep, which complicates the assessment of endogenous circadian phase and the interpretation of the effects of light treatment on sleep disorders. In some rodents motor activity has been shown to affect circadian phase, but in humans the evidence for such a feedback of activity on the pacemaker is still preliminary The endogenous circadian pacemaker is a major determinant of sleep propensity and sleep structure; these, however, are also strongly influenced by the prior history of sleep and wakefulness. In healthy young subjects, light exposure schedules that do not curtail sleep but induce moderate shifts of endogenous circadian phase have been shown to influence the timing of sleep and wakefulness without markedly affecting sleep structure.

US$19.90

PMID: 7632985

DOI: 10.1177/074873049501000204


Other references

Anonymous, 2011: An EDMD Mutation inC elegansLamin Blocks Muscle-Specific Gene Relocation and Compromises Muscle Integrity. In worms, as in other organisms, many tissue-specific promoters are sequestered at the nuclear periphery when repressed and shift inward when activated. It has remained unresolved, however, whether the association of facultative heterochromatin wi...

Epstein, M.A.; Achong, B.G., 1973: The EB virus. Annual Review of Microbiology 27: 413-436

Marusic, A.; Ramsay, S., 2001: NATO doctors question "Balkan war syndrome". Lancet 357(9251): 201-201

Herrmann, K.; Herrmann, R.M., 1973: Pulmonary infarction and bronchial carcinoma. Zeitschrift für Arztliche Fortbildung 67(22): 1156-1159

Counce, J.H.; Wise, L.J.; Burks, J.W., 1962: Hair loss: some current concepts. Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society 114: 233-238

Giuliani, G.M., 1956: Pelvic or broad ligament varicocele; surgical and anatomical research. Archivio Italiano di Chirurgia 81(5): 378-408

Sturgess, O.W., 1961: Studies with chlorotic streak disease of Sugar Cane. III. Transmission by short exposure and incubation period of the disease. Transmission between diseased and healthy canes in either aerated nutrient or gravel-nutrient solutions occurred after 7-12 days, and the incubation period ranged from 72-308 days (mean 166).

Putz, F.E., 1995: Vines in treetops: consequences of mechanical dependence. Sacrificing mechanical rigidity for rapid extension growth results in vines being susceptible to trellis deficiency. Although the upper canopy is characterized by an abundance of small branches that serve as trellis struts, gaps between crowns oft...

Mayerhoefer, M.E.; Breitenseher, M.J.; Roposch, A.; Treitl, C.; Wurnig, C., 2005: Comparison of MRI and conventional radiography for assessment of acromial shape. Our aim was to determine the value of different MRI planes independently and in combination for assessment of acromial shape. Sixty-one patients with subacromial impingement syndrome who had undergone acromioplasty after failure to respond to cons...

Anonymous, 2012: Modulation of Turkey Myogenic Satellite Cell Differentiation through the Shedding of Glypican-. Glypican-1 is a cell membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan. It is composed of a core protein with covalently attached glycosaminoglycan, and N-linked glycosylated (N-glycosylated) chains, and is attached to the cell membrane by a glycosylphosphati...