geoscience.net logo
+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Nuclear microscope analysis in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease: A review


, : Nuclear microscope analysis in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease: A review. Cellular and Molecular Biology 42(1): 17-26

The scanning nuclear microprobe (nuclear microscope) is becoming a powerful instrument for the accurate measurement of minor and trace elements in biological tissue. Using the simultaneously applied techniques of Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) to image features in the tissue, Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) to measure trace element concentrations, and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) to characterize the tissue matrix, accurate elemental analysis at the parts per million level can be obtained for most elements. This review describes briefly the results obtained using the nuclear microscope for the elemental analysis of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's tissue. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) the identification and subsequent analysis of neuritic plaque cores in unstained tissue, yielded an absence of aluminium at the limit of 15 parts per million. Previous analyses involving stained sections were prone to misinterpretation due to aluminium contamination from the staining procedures. Elemental iron, calcium, phosphorus and sulphur were elevated both in the plaques and the AD background tissue compared to age matched controls. Preliminary analyses of neurofibrillary tangles stained with toluidine blue showed increased levels of calcium, although the staining procedure may have distorted the results due to element redistribution. In Parkinson's disease (PD) nuclear microscope studies have concentrated on measurements of iron in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain; iron was observed to be elevated by a factor 2 in MPTP induced Parkinsonism in African Green monkeys, and by a factor of 1.25 in 6-OHDA induced Parkinsonism in Sprague Dawley rats. These studies are consistent with other studies showing a general increase in the concentrations of iron associated with PD, and support the theory that iron mediated free radical production may enhance or accelerate the degeneration of dopaminergic cells through oxidative stress.

US$29.90

PMID: 8833663


Other references

Sun, H-Ying.; Wang, N-Ping.; Halkos, M.; Kerendi, F.; Kin, H.; Guyton, R.A.; Vinten-Johansen, J.; Zhao, Z-Qing., 2006: Postconditioning attenuates cardiomyocyte apoptosis via inhibition of JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. A sequence of intermittent interruptions of oxygen supply (i.e., postconditioning, Postcon) at reoxygenation reduces oxidant-induced cardiomyocyte loss. This study tested the hypothesis that prevention of cardiomyocyte apoptosis by Postcon is medi...

Bottomley S.S., 1990: The role of 5 aminolevulinic acid synthase in the sideroblastic anemia syndromes. Molecular Aspects of Medicine 11(1-2): 96

Chatterjee A.K., 1972: Induction of pyridoxal phosphate formation in kidney issue of immature male rats. Indian Science Congress Association Proceedings 59(PART 3): 622-623

Benito Fernández, J.; Mintegui Raso, S.; Sánchez Echániz, J.; Martínez González, M.J.; Fernández Cuesta, M.A., 1998: Head injuries in children: can clinical features identify patients with high or low risk for intracranial injury?. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical features that might reliably identify the presence of an intracranial injury. A prospective study of 1,128 children with head injury over a one year period was carried out. Information regardi...

F Zeleny, L., 1953: Determination of moisture content of seeds. The most important basic methods for measuring the moisture content of seeds are described, including: oven, air-oven, water-oven and vacuum methods, drying with desiccants, toluene distillation and the Karl Fischer method.

Ciarka, D.; Gawronska, H.; Malecka, M.; Gawronski, S.W., 2003: Genotypical differences in allelopathic potential of Amaranthus spp. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 25(3 Supplement): 54

Balla, L.; Szunics, L., 1978: Study of the grain/straw ratio of wheat varieties. Eighteen varieties tested in 1974-77 fell into five groups ranging from those with less than 30% grain as a proportion of the total yield to those with more than 39.5%. The last group included the recent varieties Martonvasar 4 and GKF2. The perce...

Muntz, K., 1973: The function of the pod at protein storage in the seeds of Vicia faba L. I. Gelelectrophoretic comparison of soluble proteins from leaves and pods. Flora 64 (4) 357-369

Ponce Campos, P.; Huerta Ortega, S.M., 2000: Tantilla bocourti bocourti. Herpetological Review 31(2): 115, June

Liao, Y-Xin.; Hua, Y-Qi.; Cai, Z-Dong., 2013: Current advances in animal model of chondrosarcoma and related research. Chondrosarcoma is a type of malignant cartilage tumor with a high local recurrence. Due to its resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy, current treatment is limited to surgical resection. Animal model is one of the most important approaches to study...