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Pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptides and vasoactive intestinal peptide inhibit bone resorption by isolated rabbit osteoclasts

, : Pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptides and vasoactive intestinal peptide inhibit bone resorption by isolated rabbit osteoclasts. Experimental Physiology 82(5): 871-886

Nerve fibres present in the periosteum, cortical bone and bone marrow are proposed to be involved in the regulation of bone metabolism by the release of neuropeptides acting locally on bone cells. The present study describes the effects of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), shown to be present in the vicinity of bone, and the two related neuropeptides pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide(1-38) (PACAP-38) and PACAP-27 on bone resorption in vitro induced by osteoclasts isolated from 10-day-old rabbits. Bone resorption was measured as the number and total area of pits formed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated cells (TRAP + MNCs) cultured for 3 days on devitalized slices of bovine cortical bone. All three neuropeptides had significant inhibitory effects on both the number and area of pits formed. At a high concentration (10(-7) M) the mean +/- S.E.M. reductions in the total area resorbed compared with controls were 70.3 +/- 8.2, 45.2 +/- 7.3 and 63.4 +/- 7.2% for PACAP-38, PACAP-27 and VIP, respectively. The corresponding values for the apparent dissociation constants were 0.93 +/- 0.30, 3.2 +/- 1.6 and 0.35 +/- 0.14 nM, respectively. The number of TRAP + MNCs was unaffected by application of neuropeptides. Autoradiography showed the presence of 125I-VIP binding sites on some stromal cells, whereas osteoclasts had no binding sites for 125I-VIP. A high number of 125I-calcitonin binding sites was demonstrated on osteoclasts in the same preparation. The signal transduction pathway remains to be fully elucidated but seems to be partly dependent on changes in intracellular calcium concentrations, since a number of stromal cells responded to application of 10(-8) M PACAP-38 or VIP, and at least partly independent of cAMP accumulation. Trifluoperazine and mellitin, two selective calmodulin inhibitors, failed to block the VIP-induced inhibition of bone resorption. Our results demonstrate a non-toxic and probably stromal cell-derived effect of PACAP-38, PACAP-27 and VIP on isolated rabbit osteoclasts, resulting in a potent inhibition of bone resorption in vitro. The signal transduction pathway for inhibition induced by PACAP-38, PACAP-27 and VIP may be mediated partly by changes in intracellular Ca2+ in stromal cells.


PMID: 9331555

DOI: 10.1113/expphysiol.1997.sp004070

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