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An integrative approach to neurotoxicology

, : An integrative approach to neurotoxicology. Toxicologic Pathology 28(1): 37-42, Jan -Feb

Exposure of human populations to a wide variety of chemicals has generated concern about the potential neurotoxicity of new and existing chemicals. Experimental studies conducted in laboratory animals remains critical to the study of neurotoxicity. An integrative approach using pharmacokinetic, neuropathological, neurochemical, electrophysiological, and behavioral methods is needed to determine whether a chemical is neurotoxic. There are a number of factors that can affect the outcome of a neurotoxicity study, including the choice of animal species, dose and dosage regimen, route of administration, and the intrinsic sensitivity of the nervous system to the test chemical. The neurotoxicity of a chemical can vary at different stages of brain development and maturity. Evidence of neurotoxicity may be highly subjective and species specific and can be complicated by the presence of systemic disease. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of these and other factors involved in the assessment of the neurotoxic potential for chemicals. This article discusses the neurotoxicity of several neurotoxicants (eg, acrylamide, trimethyltin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, manganese, and ivermectin), thereby highlighting a multidisciplinary approach to the assessment of chemically induced neurotoxicity in animals. These model chemicals produce a broad range of effects that includes peripheral axonopathy, selective neuronal damage within the nervous system, and impaired neuronal-glial metabolism.


PMID: 10668989

DOI: 10.1177/019262330002800106

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