+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Ecosystems and the biosphere as complex adaptive systems

, : Ecosystems and the biosphere as complex adaptive systems. Ecosystems 1(5): 431-436, Sept -Oct

Ecosystems are prototypical examples of complex adaptive systems, in which patterns at higher levels emerge from localized interactions and selection processes acting at lower levels. An essential aspect of such systems is nonlinearity, leading to historical dependency and multiple possible outcomes of dynamics. Given this, it is essential to determine the degree to which system features are determined by environmental conditions, and the degree to which they are the result of self-organization. Furthermore, given the multiple levels at which dynamics become apparent and at which selection can act, central issues relate to how evolution shapes ecosystems properties, and whether ecosystems become buffered to changes (more resilient) over their ecological and evolutionary development or proceed to critical states and the edge of chaos.


DOI: 10.1007/s100219900037

Other references

Masch L.; Koch N., 1989: Deformation structures of mylonite zones of the Erbendorf-Vohenstrauss; a comparison with basic mylonites of the Alpine Silvretta Group, Graubunden. Erlanger Geologische Abhandlungen 116: 81-100

Müssig, E.; Schenk, A.; Lux, C.J.; Brunner, M., 2011: Oral health-specific stress in parents of children with orofacial clefts: an indicator for general parenting stress. Parents of children with orofacial clefts take an active part in the rehabilitation of their children. Against this background, the aim of the present study was to determine the stress in parents of orthodontically treated children with and withou...

Marciak, Z., 1973: On correlations between the growths of certain lake fish species. Acta Ichthyol Piscat, 32: 3-15

Ingold, M., 1974: Straw length in F1 hybrids of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The straw of hybrid wheats was as long as or longer than that of the taller parent, except when a semi-dwarf cultivar was one of the parents. The peduncle length of hybrids varied according to the semi-dwarf cultivar used as a parent.

Nakamura Y.; Yamamoto Y.; Mokushi K.; Mutoh Y.; Miyashita M., 1988: Comparison of ventilatory threshold and metabolic acidosis threshold based on continuous measurements. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 20(2 SUPPL): S39

Mori, U., 1979: Ecological and sociological studies of gelada baboons. Part 2. Sociology. Individual relationships within a unit. Contributions to Primatology, 16: 93-124

Athanasopoulou, S.; Marioli, D.; Mikrou, A.; Papanastasiou, A.D.; Zarkadis, I.K., 2009: Cloning and characterization of the trout perforin. The pore-forming protein, perforin is one of the effectors of cell-mediated killing. A perforin cDNA clone was isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after screening of a spleen cDNA library. The full-length cDNA is 2070 bp in size...

Pia, H.W., 1966: Differential diagnosis and operative prognosis of temporal lobe epilepsy. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Nervenheilkunde 188(3): 210-221

Shapiro, R., 1986: In vitro fertilisation. Whatever happened to Warnock?. Nursing Times 82(44): 31-32

Takeda, A.; Okada, S., 1989: Chemical form of tumor-tropic 99mTc-DL-homocysteine. Analyses of the chemical forms of 99mTc-complexes provide important information for the development of a new tumor-tropic 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceutical. We attempted to determine the chemical form of 99mTc-DL-homocysteine (99mTc-Hcy) which was...