+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Exposures and their determinants in radiographic film processing

, : Exposures and their determinants in radiographic film processing. AIHAJ 63(1): 11-21, January-February

Radiographers process X-ray films using developer and fixer solutions that contain chemicals known to cause or exacerbate asthma. In a study in British Columbia, Canada, radiographers' personal exposures to glutaraldehyde (a constituent of the developer chemistry), acetic acid (a constituent of the fixer chemistry), and sulfur dioxide (a byproduct of sulfites, present in both developer and fixer solutions) were measured. Average full-shift exposures to glutaraldehyde, acetic acid, and sulfur dioxide were 0.0009 mg/m3, 0.09 mg/m3, and 0.08 mg/m3, respectively, all more than one order of magnitude lower than current occupational exposure limits. Local exhaust ventilation of the processing machines and use of silver recovery units lowered exposures, whereas the number of films processed per machine and the time spent near the machines increased exposures. Personnel in clinic facilities had higher exposures than those in hospitals. Private clinics were less likely to have local exhaust ventilation and silver recovery units. Their radiographers spent more time in the processor areas and processed more films per machine. Although exposures were low compared with exposure standards, there are good reasons to continue practices to minimize or eliminate exposures: glutaraldehyde and hydroquinone (present in the developer) are sensitizers; the levels at which health effects occur are not yet clearly established, but appear to be lower than current standards; and health effects resulting from the mixture of chemicals are not understood. Developments in digital imaging technology are making available options that do not involve wet-processing of photographic film and therefore could eliminate the use of developer and fixer chemicals altogether.


PMID: 11843420

DOI: 10.1080/15428110208984686

Other references

J.M.K.ight; P.E.R.D.le; R.J.K.D.nn; G.J.B.oadbent; C.J.L.mckert, 2008: Patterns of tidal flooding within a mangrove forest: Coombabah Lake, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Tidal flooding and surface drainage patterns have often been used to describe mangrove species zonation. However, in mangrove forests exhibiting little topography, ambiguous species distributions and/or few species, such approaches are ineffective...

Bachli G., 1982: The type material of palearctic species of drosophilidae diptera. Beitraege zur Entomologie 32(2): 289-301

Mierau, R.; Genth, E., 2006: Scleroderma associated autoantibodies - clinical and diagnostic relevance. In systemic sclerosis (SSc) and its variants, autoantibodies are the best known immunological aberration. In more than 95% of the patients, antinuclear antibodies or other autoantibodies can be detected. In about 90% of SSc patients with antinucle...

Xu, J.; Ge, H.; Zhou, X.; Yang, D.; Guo, T.; He, J.; Li, Q.; Hao, Z., 2005: Tissue-engineered vessel strengthens quickly under physiological deformation: application of a new perfusion bioreactor with machine vision. In order to develop a patent tissue-engineered blood vessel that grossly resembles native tissue, required culture times in most studies exceed 8 weeks. For the sake of shortening the maturation period of the constructs, we have used deformation a...

Fey, H.; Nicolet, J.; Boeni, R., 1963: Epidemiological Study Of A Familial Outbreak Of A Salmonella Food Poisoning. Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift 93: 1556-1559

Johnson, L.Syd.M., 2015: A legal fiction with real consequences. American Journal of Bioethics 14(8): 34-36

Ntagiopoulos, P.G.; Moutzouris, D.Anestis.; Manetas, S., 2009: The "fish-vertebra" sign. The "fish-vertebra" sign appears as biconcave lumbar vertebrae with bone softening in lateral and posterior-anterior radiographs of the spine as an exaggeration of the normal concavity of the superior and inferior surfaces of one or more...

Bernstein, E.F.; Torem, S.; Dilley, R.B., 1990: Does carotid restenosis predict an increased risk of late symptoms, stroke, or death?. The identification of carotid restenosis as an unexpected late complication of carotid endarterectomy has prompted concerns regarding its importance as a source of new cerebral symptoms, stroke, and death. To investigate these concerns, we analyze...

Lipp, P.; Baldauf, G., 1996: Nanofiltration in combination with limestone filtration for treating a soft spring water containing high amounts of humic substances. The paper presented here describes experiments with a nanofiltration pilot plant treating spring water which contains high amounts of humic substances. With this process, water components such as humic substances, iron, manganese, and aluminum may...

McCourt S.; Hilliard P.; Armstrong R.A.; Munyanyiwa H., 2000: SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Urungwe Granite, North-west Zimbabwe; age constraints on the timing of the Magondi Orogeny and implications for the correlation between the Kheis and Magondi belts. Journal of African Earth Sciences (1994) 31(1A): 49-50