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Glutaredoxin protects cerebellar granule neurons from dopamine-induced apoptosis by dual activation of the ras-phosphoinositide 3-kinase and jun n-terminal kinase pathways

, : Glutaredoxin protects cerebellar granule neurons from dopamine-induced apoptosis by dual activation of the ras-phosphoinositide 3-kinase and jun n-terminal kinase pathways. Journal of Biological Chemistry 276(24): 21618-21626

Glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) from Escherichia coli protects cerebellar neurons from dopamine-induced apoptosis via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation, which is mediated by the expression of redox factor-1 (Ref-1). An analysis of the mechanisms underlying Grx2 protective activity revealed dual activation of signal transduction pathways. Grx2 significantly activated the Ras/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/NF-kappaB cascade in parallel to the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/AP1 cascade. Dopamine, in comparison, down-regulated both pathways. Treatment of neurons with Ref-1 antisense oligonucleotide reduced the ability of Grx2 to activate Akt and AP-1 but had no effect on the phosphorylation of JNK1/2, suggesting that Akt/NF-kappaB and AP-1 are regulated by Ref-1. Exposure of the neurons to JNK1/2 antisense oligonucleotide in the presence of Grx2 significantly reduced AP-1 and NF-kappaB DNA binding activities and abolished Grx2 protection. These results demonstrate that dual activation of Ras/phosphoinositide 3-kinase and AP-1 cascades, which are mediated by Ref-1, is an essential component of the Grx2 mechanism of action.


PMID: 11290748

DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M101400200

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