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The prevalence of antibiotic resistance among gram negative bacilli from Intensive Care Units in Oman

, : The prevalence of antibiotic resistance among gram negative bacilli from Intensive Care Units in Oman. Saudi Medical Journal 20(5): 373-377

Objectives: This study aims to investigate antibiotic consumption and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance among gram-negative bacteria in Intensive Care Units. Methods: Antibiotic consumption during the study period was recorded. Ninety six gram-negative bacteria from patients in the intensive care units were identified and tested for susceptibilities to 12 antibiotics. Ceftazidime-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. were further tested for production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases. Results: Antibiotic consumption, mostly penicillins and cephalosporins was equivalent to 605 treatment days per 100 hospital discharges. The commonest isolates were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, followed by Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli, mostly recovered from sputum and blood. Ciprofloxacin and imipenem, showed the highest in-vitro activity, inhibiting 94% and 92% of the strains. Thirty six percent of the strains were susceptible to ceftriaxone, 40% to cefotaxime and 78% to ceftazidime. Piperacillin and piperacillin/tazobactam inhibited 73% and 82% of strains. Aminoglycosides' activity was similar to that of piperacillin/tazobactam. Forty one percent of Klebsiella spp. were resistant to all cephalosporins and aztreonam. Imipenem resistance occurred with Pseudomonas spp, Acinetobacter spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Conclusion: Overuse of antibiotics could be behind this high rate of drug resistance. Rational prescribing of antibiotics should be encouraged through educational programs, surveillance and audit.


PMID: 27631291

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