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Transcription of the Dictyostelium glycogen phosphorylase-2 gene is induced by three large promoter domains


, : Transcription of the Dictyostelium glycogen phosphorylase-2 gene is induced by three large promoter domains. Developmental Genetics 23(3): 230-246

The promoter of the Dictyostelium glycogen phosphorylase-2 (gp2) gene possesses a profound AT-bias, typical of promoters in this organism. To understand how Dictyostelium achieves specificity during transcriptional regulation under the constraint of this highly biased nucleotide composition, we have documented the changes in chromatin structure associated with developmental induction of gp2 gene expression. DNase I hypersensitive analyses indicated the presence of several developmentally regulated nuclease-sensitive sites located upstream of the start codon: two strong sites at approximately -250 bp and -350 bp and three substantially weaker sites at -290 bp, -445 bp, and -505 bp. In vitro footprint analyses using nuclear extracts derived from several stages of development (corresponding to varying levels of gp2 expression) revealed three large regions of occupation that were developmentally regulated and corresponded to these nuclease-sensitive sites: -227 to -294 bp (domain 1), -327 to -383 bp (domain 2), and -416 to -534 bp (domain 3). The presence and the extent of the three regulatory domains was confirmed by in vivo footprint analyses spanning the same developmental time points. Southwestern analyses using probes encompassing these footprints demonstrated that probes corresponding to domains 1 and 3 both interacted with 83 and 77 kDa peptides. The domain 3 probe also interacted with a 92 kDa peptide, while only a 62 kDa peptide is recognized by the domain 2 probe. In all cases, peptides capable of binding these probes were found in nuclear extracts derived from differentiated cells and not in undifferentiated cell nuclear extract. Using nuclear extract from differentiated cells and probes corresponding to the three domains, gel mobility shift analyses detected ladders of retarded bands for both domains 1 and 3 and three major retarded bands for domain 2. These results suggest that specificity in transcriptional activation in the AT-rich promoters of Dictyostelium may be achieved by requiring multiple protein-DNA and/or protein-protein interactions to occur before induction can proceed.

US$19.90

PMID: 9842717

DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6408(1998)23:3<230::AID-DVG8>3.0.CO;2-6


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