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Differential early mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in hyperglycemic ischemic brain injury in the rat

, : Differential early mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in hyperglycemic ischemic brain injury in the rat. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 35(7): 457-463

Background Hyperglycemia aggravates brain injury induced by focal ischemia-reperfusion. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) members extracellular-signal regulated kinase (Erk) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) have been proposed as mediators of ischemic brain injury, and Erk is strongly activated by combined hyperglycemia and transient global ischemia. It is unclear whether similar MAPK activation appears in focal brain ischemia with concomitant hyperglycemia.Design Hyperglycemia was induced in rats by an intraperitoneal bolus of glucose (2 g kg(-1)). The rats were then subjected to 90 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Erk and JNK activation were investigated with immunofluorescence and Western blot along with infarct size measurement based on tetrazolium staining and neurological score.Results The hyperglycemic rats showed increased tissue damage and impaired neurological performance after 1 day compared with controls. The hyperglycemia was generally moderate (< 15 mM). Erk activation was increased after 30 min of reperfusion in the ischemic cortex of the hyperglycemic rats, while JNK activation was present on the contralateral side. Phospho-Erk immunofluorescence revealed marked neuronal activation of Erk in the ischemic cortex of hyperglycemic rats compared with controls.Conclusion Besides confirming the detrimental effects of hyperglycemia on focal ischemia-reperfusion, this study shows that hyperglycemia strongly activates the pathogenic mediator Erk in the ischemic brain in the early phase of reperfusion. JNK activation at this stage is present in the nonischemic hemisphere. The functional relevance of these findings needs further investigation.


PMID: 16008548

DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2362.2005.01512.x

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