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Hypofractionated conformal radiotherapy in carcinoma of the prostate: five-year outcome analysis

, : Hypofractionated conformal radiotherapy in carcinoma of the prostate: five-year outcome analysis. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 57(5): 1254-1259

Purpose: Recent publications have indicated that the alpha/beta ratios for carcinoma of the prostate are much lower than had originally been thought, suggesting that prostate cancer may be highly sensitive to fraction size. We have reviewed our unique experience of the use of 3.13 Gy fractions in a large cohort of men treated homogenously in a single institute. Methods and Materials: The outcome for 705 men with T1-T4, N0, M0 prostate cancer who received conformal radiotherapy between 1995 and 1998 at this center was analyzed. No patient received hormonal manipulation. Mean age was 68 years (range: 49-84 years). Median pretreatment PSA was 13 ng/mL (range: 0.6-270 ng/mL). Disease characteristics were as follows: Stage T1, 125 (18%); T2, 365 (52%); T3/4, 215 (30%); Gleason 2-6, 463 (66%); Gleason 7-10, 242 (34%); pretreatment PSA ltoreq10 ng/mL, 291 (41%); 10 to ltoreq20, 228 (32%); >20, 186 (27%). Median follow-up was 48 months (range: 1-82 months). Biochemical-free survival (bNED) was defined by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus definition. Radiotherapy was delivered to a planning target volume (prostate plus all/base of the seminal vesicles dependent on risk criteria with a 1-cm margin) with a 4-field conformal technique to a dose of 50 Gy in 16 daily fractions over 22 days. Results: The 5-year bNED survival was significantly associated (p<0.001) with pretreatment PSA, stage, and Gleason score. Five-year bNED rates with respect to pretreatment characteristics were as follows: 73% (PSA ltoreq10), 52% (>10-20), 35% (>20), 64% (Stage T1/2), 38% (T3/4), 61% (Gleason score 2-6), and 46% (Gleason gtoreq7). When patients were grouped into good (Stage T1/2, PSA ltoreq10 ng/mL, and Gleason score <7) (n=181), intermediate (1 raised value) (n=247), or poor (2 or more raised values) (n=277) prognostic groups, the bNED was, respectively, 82%, 56%, and 39%. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade gtoreq2 bowel toxicity was 5% and bladder 9%. Conclusion: These data indicate that the delivery of a relatively low total dose using a hypofractionated regime results in similar tumor control and normal-tissue toxicity to 65-70 Gy delivered in 1.8-2 Gy fractions. These data suggest that this is an acceptable regime for good-prognosis patients. However, because of the evidence for a dose effect at doses above 70 Gy with "conventional fractionation," we are now treating intermediate- and poor-risk patients within a hypofractionated dose escalation trial to 60 Gy in 20 fractions using intensity-modulated radiotherapy.


PMID: 14630259

DOI: 10.1016/s0360-3016(03)00752-1

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