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Limits to plasticity in Gray Wolf, Canis lupus, pack structure: Conservation implications for recovering populations

, : Limits to plasticity in Gray Wolf, Canis lupus, pack structure: Conservation implications for recovering populations. Canadian Field-Naturalist 117(3): 419-423, July

We documented the dynamics of the Five Corners Pack (FCP) in east-central Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin through the loss and replacement of four alpha-females over a four-year period. This pack remained intact and produced offspring during the period despite the annual loss of the alpha female. However, we observed a disintegration of the pack after four consecutive alpha females died, at least two of which were due to illegal killing by humans. Our observations generally support the hypothesis that "single-parent" wolf packs may be more prevalent in areas with low densities of wolves and high densities of ungulate prey. Our observations also highlight the need to assess the potential negative impacts of wolf removal on pack structure and persistence at local and regional scales.


Other references

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Bleacher Jacob E.; Greeley Ronald; Cave Shelby R.; Williams David A.; Werner Stephanie C.; Neukum Gerhard; Jaumann Ralf, 2005: Evolution of effusive style at Pavonis Mons, Mars, inferred from lava flow mapping of Mars Express high resolution stereo camera data. The abundances and temporal relationships of lava channels and tubes can be used to infer recent styles of effusive activity on a volcano, as they generally form from different eruptive conditions. The southern flank of Pavonis Mons (PM), as image...

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Janowski, T.; Domoslawska, A.; Zdunczyk, S., 2003: Blokery receptorow progesteronu (antygestageny) oraz ich zastosowanie w rozrodzie malych zwierzat. This article deals with the mode of action, pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of progesterone receptor blockers, as well as their practical use in reproduction in dogs and cats. It reviews the literature regarding therapeutic and biot...