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Refining clinical practice: transforming science research into the art of medicine

, : Refining clinical practice: transforming science research into the art of medicine. Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore 33(3): 392-397

This article traces the development of modern day breast cancer treatment from 1896 when observations were made on the positive response of patients to oophorectomy. The oestrogen receptor was defined and tamoxifen was discovered to be an effective anti-oestrogen. The genes related to breast cancer, BRCA1 and BRCA2, were found to confer high risks of breast and ovarian cancer on women with these genes. The application of functional genomics to breast tumours would result in a more accurate classification of cancers and hopefully more specific therapy and better clinical outcomes. An important off-shoot of anti-oestrogen research has resulted in a new class of drugs called selective oestrogen receptor modulators for treatment of osteoporosis and dyslipidemia.


PMID: 15175789

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Francia, F., 2014: Dismettere le pratiche "preventive" inefficaci per alleggerire i gravami sui cittadini e sulle imprese. Many preventive services do not apply EBP interventions, but continue to employ resources in activities clearly ineffective. This happens even though there is full knowledge of the futility of certain practices. It follows a fall of responsiveness...

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