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Klinik und Therapie der Dissektionen hirnversorgender Arterien


, : Klinik und Therapie der Dissektionen hirnversorgender Arterien. Nervenarzt 77(Suppl. 1): S17-S29

Dissection of a cervicocerebral artery (CAD) is the second leading cause of stroke at younger ages. The pathogenesis of spontaneous CAD is not fully clarified. Defective connective tissue components may cause an arteriopathy predisposing to CAD in combination with certain trigger and risk factors. The clinical spectrum includes local pain in the neck, headaches, Horner's syndrome, isolated cranial nerve deficits, and hemispheric or brainstem infarction. Noninvasively, CAD is confirmed by Duplex sonography, MRI, and MRA. There is no controlled study for best treatment or management. Rational initial empiric treatment in acute CAD to prevent secondary embolism is partial thromboplastin time-guided anticoagulation by intravenous heparin followed by anticoagulation with warfarin. Carotid surgery for treating CAD is not recommended. The duration of anticoagulation is best guided by Doppler sonography follow-up and should extend until normalization of blood flow or at least 6 months after the vessel was occluded. Caution should be recommended for exercises that involve excessive head movements. The recurrence rate for CAD is low at < 1%/year except for patients with known hereditary connective tissue disorders or in cases with familial dissections.

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