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First results on synchrony between seasonal pattern of pheromone trap captures of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera and appearance of freshly emerged larvae on developing cobs of corn hybrids

, : First results on synchrony between seasonal pattern of pheromone trap captures of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera and appearance of freshly emerged larvae on developing cobs of corn hybrids. Journal of pest science 80(3): 183-189

Synchrony between development of five corn hybrid varieties of various seasonal growing rates (FAO numbers), seasonal flight pattern of male cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hb. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), as monitored by pheromone traps, and the subsequent appearance of newly hatched larvae on developing cobs were studied at Mez?hegyes, South-Hungary, in 2003 and 2004. The phenological stages of corn hybrids were evaluated using the Iowa State University Scale (R-R), the flight of male moths was monitored by large capacity, funnel type of pheromone traps and the appearance of freshly hatched larvae on developing cobs were counted by visual inspection. The synchrony between the flight peak of male moths and the peak apperance of L larvae on cobs was investigated by cross-correlation. In 2003 (average daily temperatures 20.7pC, average daily relative humidity 59.9% for the period of 4-18 July) DK 391, DK 443 and Maraton hybrid varieties already reached silking stage (R) by the time when pheromone traps indicated a peak, at 7 July (peak capture at 3-day intervals 755.5 males/traps). The number of L larvae peaked on developing cobs of these varieties also at 7 July (7.0, 4.0 and 3.8 larvae/50 cobs, respectively). The synchrony between the flight peak of male moths and the peak appearance of L larvae on cobs was proven (LAG = 0). A rather similar trend was observed in Vilma hybrid variety: it reached R stage at 7 July, and L larvae appeared only a few days later (11 July, 3.8 larvae/50 cobs) (LAG = -1). However, Maxima hybrid variety reached R stage 1 week later (14 July) than the time of peak captures. Here L larvae peaked as late as at 18 July (0.8 larvae/50 cobs), i.e., only after the cob had reached R stage (LAG = -3). A reverse order of dates of R stage and peak capture was observed in Maxima in 2004 (average daily temperatures; 22.5pC, average daily relative humidities 72.6% for the period of 15 July-6 August): it reached R stage at 19 July, while peak trap captures were recorded at 6 August (peak capture at 3-day intervals 20.5 males/traps). L larvae were found in the highest numbers on 2 August (1.5 larvae/50 cobs), practically in synchrony with peak caputres (LAG = 0). KcLma reached R stage in 16 July, and L larvae peaked at 2 August (1.3 larvae/50 cobs) (LAG = 0). On the rest of the corn varieties larvae were found only in too numbers for performing statistical analysis. We conclude that in order to predict the appearance of L larvae, the phenological stage of the corn variety and the seasonal flight pattern of moths, as measured by large capacity pheromone traps, should be considered in combination. If the corn variety already reached R stage, L larvae appear on cobs as early as the time of peak flight of moths. However, no young larvae appear on cobs despite of high trap captures, until the corn reaches the R stage. These findings are discussed in the view of specifying optimal timing of a pesticide application.


DOI: 10.1007/s10340-007-0164-y

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