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Mortality of white-tailed deer in northeastern Minnesota

, : Mortality of white-tailed deer in northeastern Minnesota. Journal of Wildlife Management 50.4: 691-698

Two hundred nine white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ) were radiotracked in the central Superior National Forest, Minnesota, from 1973 through winter 1983-84; 85 deaths were recorded. Annual survival was 0.31 for fawns (< 1.0 years old), 0.80 for yearling (1.0-2.0 years old) females, 0.41 for yearling males, 0.79 for adult ( greater than or equal to 2.0 years old) females, and 0.47 for adult males. Monthly survival rates were high from May through December (0.94-1.00), except for yearling (0.60) and adult (0.69) bucks during the November hunting season. Most mortality occurred from January through April when gray wolf (Canis lupus ) predation was an important mortality source for all cohorts. Yearling males were most vulnerable to hunting and adult males to wolf predation.


DOI: 10.2307/3800983

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