+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Earthquake risk assessment; state-of-the-art and unresolved problems

, : Earthquake risk assessment; state-of-the-art and unresolved problems. New Zealand Science Review 55(1-2): 40-43

In studies of the social impact of earthquakes, practitioners distinguish between the "hazard" from earthquakes, being the probability of occurrence in a specified time of a specified level of adverse effect, and "risk", being the social consequences, in costs and casualties, of those effects. Earthquake effects include strong shaking, ground rupture, ground failure, landsliding, liquefaction, and tsunami. The relative importance of these will vary from site to site within a region and hazard therefore needs to be estimated site by site. Risk is calculated by integrating the hazard with a database of the locations of the property and people at risk and the expected loss factors for each category in this database. GIS systems provide a way of consolidating the impacts of all the effects into a single earthquake hazard or loss model. The method could readily be extended to all hazards, natural and man-made. The principal problem in the field is the uncertainty of some of the critical parameters in the models, particularly the loss factors, which may produce a final result which is uncertain. This means careful judgement is required from users when making decisions that depend on the results. Inadequacies in the data may not be ameliorated until future large earthquakes provide more.


Other references

Cattermole, C.; Hesling, L., 1976: The Zambian tractor owner--a survey in the Mazabuka District. Farming in Zambia: 10 (1) 9-10

Bucci E., 1982: The pk of the amino terminal groups of carbon mon oxy hemo globin and deoxy hemo globin measured by di nitro phenylation in phosphate buffers. The rate of reaction of the terminal valines of the .alpha.- and .beta.-chains of Hb with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene was followed spectrophotometrically at 353 nm. The variation with pH of the rate of dinitrophenylation of these groups was measur...

Veselkin, P.N., 1952: Present state of fever. Arkhiv Patologii 14(4): 3-20

Heeger, P.S., 2016: What's hot, what's new in basic science: report from the American Transplant Congress 2015. Research reports presented at the American Transplant Congress 2015 provided an array of basic science findings of relevance to the transplant community. Among key themes is the concept that ischemia-reperfusion injury and early posttransplantatio...

Perabo, L.; Endell, J.; King, S.; Lux, K.; Goldnau, D.; Hallek, M.; Büning, H., 2005: Combinatorial engineering of a gene therapy vector: directed evolution of adeno-associated virus. Background Viruses are being exploited as vectors to deliver therapeutic genetic information into target cells. The success of this approach will depend on the ability to overcome current limitations, especially in terms of safety and efficiency,...

L.K.nglin; Macnae James C., 1996: Design and test of capacitive electrode. International Geological Congress, Abstracts = Congres Geologique International, Resumes 30, Vol

Schibanoff J.M.; Cuomo A.J., 1975: The role of broncho fiberoscopy with saline lavage in the treatment of respiratory failure. Chest 68(3): 425

Yamamoto, Y.; Klein, T.W.; Shinomiya, H.; Nakano, M.; Friedman, H., 1992: Infection of macrophages with Legionella pneumophila induces phosphorylation of a 76-kilodalton protein. Infection of peritoneal macrophages from susceptible A/J mice with Legionella pneumophila induced phosphorylation of a 76-kDa protein. The phosphorylation occurred when macrophages were infected with a virulent strain of L. pneumophila but did not...

Warn, M., 1999: Laws of the OR. Seminars in Perioperative Nursing 8(2): 97-97

Kim, J.B.; Lee, H.Y., 1990: A comparative karyotype study on korean squirrels ii. karyotype analysis of sciurus vulgaris coreae and tamias sibiricus asiaticus by g banding method. The Karyotypes of Korean Sciurus vulgaris coreae and Tamias sibiricus asiaticus were analyzed by the G-banding method. Chromosomes of two species could be identified by G-banding patterns. The banding patterns of chromosomes 9, 10, 12 and X of S....