+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Influences of exchanged metal ions on coal liquefaction

, : Influences of exchanged metal ions on coal liquefaction. Energy and Fuels 12(5): 843-848

To clarify the effectiveness of ion exchange as a method of loading liquefaction catalysts, a subbituminous coal and three brown coals were loaded with iron catalysts by ion exchange, impregnation, or physical mixing and liquefied in a laboratory scale small autoclave. For Yallourn coal from Australia, the liquefaction yields of the iron-exchanged coal with added sulfur as promoter were higher than that of coals loaded by impregnation and physical mixing methods. For this coal, the amount of exchanged iron could be enhanced by a calcium preexchange treatment, leading to a further increase in liquefaction yields. In the cases of the other coals, the activities of the exchanged iron catalysts were nearly the same or lower than those of the pyrite powder physically mixed with coal. To explain this result, it is necessary to consider the fact that these coals have a small amount of cation exchange capacity and the exchanged iron is not act as effective as the same amount of the pyrite powder. Thus, the effectiveness of the ion exchange is strongly dependent on the structure of the coal. The activity of the iron catalyst was significantly enhanced by the addition of nickel.


DOI: 10.1021/ef970162p

Other references

Jaiswal, M.; Bhar, S.; Vemula, H.; Prakash, S.; Ponnaluri, V.K.Chaithanya.; Gutheil, W.G.; Mukherji, M., 2017: Convenient expression, purification and quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based analysis of TET2 5-methylcytosine demethylase. 5-Methylcytosine within CpG islands in DNA plays a crucial role in epigenetic transcriptional regulation during metazoan development. Recently, it has been established that the Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) family, Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG...

Madeira-Lopes, A.; Van Uden, N., 1983: Effects of cycloheximide on the temperature profile of Sacharomyces cerevisiae. Tmax, the maximum temperature for growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, decreased linearly with increasing concentrations of cycloheximide added to the medium, to about 20 °C at 2.5 μg ml−1. In this concentration range thermal death was...

Wistrand, M.; Sonnhammer, E.L.L., 2005: Improved profile HMM performance by assessment of critical algorithmic features in SAM and HMMER. Background: Profile hidden Markov model (HMM) techniques are among the most powerful methods for protein homology detection. Yet, the critical features for successful modelling are not fully known. In the present work we approached this by using t...

Uzlaner, N.; Priel, Z., 2000: Mechanism of purinergically induced ciliary beat frequency enhancement. European Biophysics Journal 29(4-5): 340

Mathur, S.K.; Gupta, S.; Marwah, N.; Narula, A.; Singh, S.; Arora, B., 2004: Significance of mucin stain in differentiating benign and malignant lesions of prostate. In an attempt to assess the significance of mucin stains in benign and malignant lesions of prostate, 200 prostatic biopsies in the department of Pathology, Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak were studied. All the biopsies were subjected to PAS and alc...

Song, L.; Li, H.; Sunar, U.; Chen, J.; Corbin, I.; Yodh, A.G.; Zheng, G., 2008: Naphthalocyanine-reconstituted LDL nanoparticles for in vivo cancer imaging and treatment. Low density lipoproteins (LDLs) are naturally occurring nanoparticles that are biocompatible, biodegradable and non-immunogenic. Moreover, the size of LDL particle is precisely controlled (approximately 22 nm) by its apoB-100 component, setting th...

Vater, J.; Kleinkauf, H., 1975: Substrate specificity of the amino acyl adenylate activation sites of gramicidin S-synthetase (GSS). An investigation was made of the intermolecular forces which determine substrate recognition and binding as well as of the topography and localized environment of the different binding sites of the substrate amino acids of gramicidin S-synthetase...

Halvorsen, O., 1971: Studies of the helminth fauna of Norway 19: the seasonal cycle and microhabitat preference of the leech, Cystobranchus mammillatus (Malm 1863) parasitizing burbot, Lota lota (L). Norwol: 177-180

Marzano, A., 2009: Management of HBV infection during immunosuppressive treatment. The literature on hepatitis B virus (HBV) in immunocompromised patients is heterogeneous and refers mainly to the pre-antivirals era. Currently, a rational approach to the problem of hepatitis B in these patients provides for: a) the evaluation of...

Marziali, M.; Capozzolo, T., 2016: Role of Gluten-Free Diet in the Management of Chronic Pelvic Pain of Deep Infiltranting Endometriosis. Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology 22(6s): S51-S52