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Lithofacies and depositional environments of the Cenomanian Galala Formation and early Turonian Abo Qada Formation, central western Sinai, Egypt


, : Lithofacies and depositional environments of the Cenomanian Galala Formation and early Turonian Abo Qada Formation, central western Sinai, Egypt. Annals of the Geological Survey of Egypt 26(Pages 217-234

This paper deals with the lithofacies and depositional environments of the Galala Formation (Cenomanian) and the overlying Abu Qada Formation (Turonian) at Gabal Giddi and El-Minediara El-Kebiara, central Western Sinai. The Galala Formation was probably deposited under two superimposed environments; subtidal-intertidal and subtidal. The subtidal-intertidal environments were dominant during the deposition of the lower and the middle parts of the formation. Under such environments several meter-scale shallowing upward cycles were deposited at the base followed upward by molluscan bioclastic wackestone and capped by dolostone at the top. Other cycles are made up of claystone at the base, foraminiferal molluscan wackestone and echinoidal molluscan wackestone at the middle and dolomitic quartzarenite at the top. The subtidal environment was dominated during the deposition of the upper part of the Galala Formation, represented by several cycles of molluscan wackestone at the base capped by molluscan bioclastic wackestone at the top. These cycles were probably deposited under shallow to deep subtidal zone without reaching to the intertidal zone as indicated by the absence of dolomitic facies. The Abu Qada Formation displays different modes of deposition. Towards the south at El-Minediara El-Kebiara, the basal parts were deposited in shallow subtidal open marine shelf due to the intercalation of wackestone/packstone lithofacies, which are capped by calcareous quartzarenite. The upper parts may indicate near shore facies due to emergence of the basin. On the other hand, the facies at Gabal Giddi are mostly molluscan bioclastic packstone/wackstone in the basal part and shallow subtidal environment in the upper part. Upwards there was deepening where foraminiferal Lime-mudstone and molluscan bioclastic wackestone form the upper part of the formation.

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