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Porphyry-epithermal relationships in the Baguio District, Philippines; telescoping of low sulfidation mineralisation by transpressional uplift and erosion


, : Porphyry-epithermal relationships in the Baguio District, Philippines; telescoping of low sulfidation mineralisation by transpressional uplift and erosion. Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America 28(7): 155

The Central Cordillera in northern Luzon, Philippines, is an important porphyry Cu-Au and epithermal Au mineral province. Several large low sulfidation epithermal deposits occur in the Baguio mineral district, situated at the southern end of the Cordillera in a restraining bend of the Philippine Fault system. At the Acupan gold mine, 0.65 Ma low sulfidation epithermal gold mineralisation has overprinted 2.4 Ma porphyry Cu-Au mineralisation. Telescoping of epithermal mineralisation onto the older porphyry system at Acupan was favoured by high uplift rates, related to transpressional uplift of segments of the Central Cordillera, combined with high erosion rates associated with the monsoonal climate. Denudation of the local topography was exacerbated at Acupan by the emplacement and subsequent partial removal of a phreatomagmatic vent/diatreme complex prior to epithermal vein formation. Stable isotope and fluid inclusion data has shown that sulfur and carbon in the epithermal veins were magmatically-derived, whereas most of the solutes and water were of meteoric origin. However, there was no direct input of magmatic-hydrothermal fluids from the porphyry system into the low salinity epithermal vein system. Superposition of porphyry and epithermal mineralisation in the Central Cordillera was a result of the combination of rapid transpressional uplift and high erosion rates, and is likely to have been a more common telescoping mechanism in the Western Pacific than catastrophic unroofing of a volcano by sector collapse (eg. Lihir).

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