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Physiologisches Verhalten als Ausdruck der Phylogenese

, : Physiologisches Verhalten als Ausdruck der Phylogenese. Zool Anz 123(10/12): 225-240

Phylogeny has hitherto been based almost exclusively on comparative morphology but comparative behavior and physiology may yield results of phylogenetic value. Starting from the observation that flightless ground beetles (Carabus granulatus) showed behavior reminiscent of flight, a study was made of flying and flightless birds. The tail reflex (elevating tail when forebody dips and vice versa) is well exhibited by flying birds and is also shown by flightless birds such as the ostrich and emu, an indication that the latter derive from flying ancestors. After studying abdominal and antennal responses in flying beetles and butterflies to changes of body position, flightless forms were tested and found to give similar reactions to tilting of the body in various ways. Several spp. of Carabus show much variation in the develop, of the wings from fully winged individuals to those with rudimentary wings; all give the same antennal reflex to body tipping. Primitive wingless insects as Lepisma completely fail to give any reflexes suggestive of flight. It is suggested that homosexual behavior may be a reminiscence of an original bisexual condition.


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