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Chromosome number and the relationship of species in the genus Viola


, : Chromosome number and the relationship of species in the genus Viola. Ann Bot 41(164): 677-714

Thirty species of Viola (belonging to the 4 sections, Nominium, Dischidium, Chamaemelanium, and Melanium) were investigated. "The haploid chromosome numbers are 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, 18, 20, 24, 26, 27, 30 and 36. They fall into groups of a 6-series, a 12-series and a 10-series. In the Nominium section there are 10-and a 12-series; in the Melanium section a 10- and a 6-series, the latter, however, with rather numerous aberrations." Some spontaneous and artificial species hybrids were investigated. In epipsila [image] palustris, and lutea[image] tricolor, the univalent chromosomes split in the heterotypic metaphase. "Cultivated pansies, produced by species crossing between Viola lutea and tricolor, and between these and cormuta, have as a rule n=24," with irregularities. "In the different sections, the chromosome numbers afford an aid to the grouping of species, and are an important factor in determining whether 2 types are specifically distinct or not." As a rule species of the same systematic subgroup belong to the same series of chromosome numbers. In the Melanium section, there are 2 subdivisions: the Calcaratae (the 10-series) and the Tricolores (the 6-series).

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