geoscience.net logo
+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Die Warmebildung des Skelettmuskels bei indirekter und direkter Reizung, sowie bei der Reflexzuckung


, : Die Warmebildung des Skelettmuskels bei indirekter und direkter Reizung, sowie bei der Reflexzuckung. Pfluger S Arch Ges Physiol 219(3/4): 514-553

Indirect stimulation by maximal single shocks or short tetani produces the same tension as direct excitation. The initial heat liberated is however smaller with the indirect excitation. There is on the average a 6.5% decrease in the isometric quotient H/TL, which represents an increase in the efficiency of setting up tension. There is this smaller heat production in all 3 phases of heat liberation. The aerobic recovery heat is in both cases the same fraction of the initial heat. In doing a given amount of work the heat is less when indirect excitation is used than when direct is employed. With increased loading the heat produced increases to a maximum with both types of excitation. With further stretching the heat produced falls off at low temperatures but at higher temperatures stays at the maximum until the completely isometric loading is reached. In dying muscles and after incomplete curari-zation the isometric quotient is higher with indirect than direct excitation. Secretin not only impairs tension production but increases the isometric quotient of fresh muscle. Submaximal stimuli give lower quotients than maximal with both direct and indirect stimuli. In a tetanus a lower frequency of stimulation gives a larger tension-time area than a high frequency along with an equal or smaller heat production. By summation of stimuli at an interval of 5-15 [sigma] an increased efficiency of tension production is obtained which may be increased by employing submaximal shocks. The increase in efficiency thus obtained helps to explain why reflex contractions show an isometric quotient 20-25% lower than by direct stimulation of muscle. There is an advantage to the economy of the organism in natural contraction consisting in tetanic summations of contraction.

US$29.90


Other references

Kok, L.; Elias, S.G.; Witteman, B.J.M.; Goedhard, J.G.; Romberg-Camps, Mëlle.J.L.; Muris, J.W.M.; Moons, K.G.M.; de Wit, N.J., 2013: Application of the Rome III criteria is not likely to reduce the number of unnecessary referrals for colonoscopy in primary care. To determine to what extent the Rome III criteria for irritable bowel syndrome can contribute towards safely reducing unnecessary referrals for colonoscopy in primary care patients with lower gastrointestinal (GI) complaints. Data from the CEDAR s...

Rainwater, C.F., 1938: Test of insecticides for control of the boll weevil with and without untreated checks. A number of insecticides were each replicated 6 times on 1/10 acre plots arranged in Latin squares for boll weevil control. The results show that Ca arsenate is superior to 50-50 or 331/3-66f Ca arsenate + lime for boll weevil control. No signific...

Hung O.R.; Varvel J.R.; Shafer S.L.; Stanski D.R., 1990: Use of eeg as a measure of thiopental anesthetic depth. Anesthesiology (Hagerstown) 73(3A): A391

Rabino, M.; Trusolino, L.; Prat, M.; Cremona, O.; Savoia, P.; Marchisio, P.C., 1994: A monoclonal antibody identifies a novel GPI-anchored glycoprotein involved in epithelial intercellular adhesion. BD31 mAb, raised against a line of gastric carcinoma cells, reacts with intercellular boundaries of human transformed cells originating from carcinomas or sarcomas growing in epithelial-like clusters as well as in primary cultures of epithelial an...

Pehl, C.; Boccali, I.; Hennig, M.; Schepp, W., 2004: pH probe positioning for 24-hour pH-metry by manometry or pH step-up. Before pH measurement, manometry is recommended for precise pH probe positioning. We investigated whether the pH probe could be positioned accurately by the pH difference between the oesophagus and the stomach (pH step-up). Dual-channel 24-h pH-me...

Warner N.A.; Leland D.S.; Suter L.S., 1991: Evaluation of commercially available human immunodeficiency virus 1 antibody immunoblotting kits. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology 91: 432

Hogg, E.; Ferguson, M.; Mcneill, T.H., 2001: The use of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug can reverse the age associated decrease in the adaptive response to brain injury. Previous studies have reported that microglia and astrocyte activation are a common occurrence in the aged brain. By-products of this activation result in an inflammatory response that is thought to reduce the ability of the aged brain to respond...

Menghi, G.; Bondi, A.M.; Accili, D.; Fumagalli, L., 1989: Ultrastructure and complex carbohydrate ultracytochemistry of the cat parotid gland. The structure and glycoconjugate content of the cat parotid gland were analyzed at electron microscopic level by applying morphological techniques and three ultrastructural histochemical methods - HID-TCH-SP, LID-TCH-SP and PA-TCH-SP. This gland a...

Bihari-Varga, M.; Keller, L.; Landi, A.; Robert, L., 1984: Elastase-type activity, elastase inhibitory capacity, lipids and lipoproteins in the sera of patients with ischemic vascular disease. Elastase-type activity and elastase inhibitory capacity were determined in the sera of 130 atherosclerotic patients, suffering from ischemic vascular disease (IVD) localized at various sites, and of 60 control subjects. The concentrations of serum...

Golubov V.N., 1988: Natural pigments and their types of deposits. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR Seriya Geologicheskaya