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Gonad hormone functions, and the reciprocal influence between gonads and hypophysis with its bearing on the problem of sex-hormone antagonism


, : Gonad hormone functions, and the reciprocal influence between gonads and hypophysis with its bearing on the problem of sex-hormone antagonism. Amer Jour Anat 50(1): 13-67

Observations are reported on the effects of injecting testis hormone and oestrin singly, and as mixtures, into castrated and normal [male] and [female] rats. Also reported are effects from combinations of the 2 hormones with the additional administration of gonad-stimulating substances from fresh hypophysial homo-implants and extracts of human pregnancy urine. A theory of a reciprocal gonad-hypophysial influence is offered to explain the findings presented and it is extended to include the observations from many other laboratories that involve several different lines of experimentation. Four main conceptions are defended: (1) gonad hormones stimulate homologous sex characters, but are without effect upon heterologous characters; (2) gonad hormones have no direct effect upon the sex glands of either sex; they neither stimulate nor depress the sex glands; (3) gonad-stimulating substances are necessary to force the activity of these organs to produce sex cells or secrete hormone, and, (4) sex hormones (of both sexes) suppress hypophysial function. An explanation of the controlling mechanism of the oestrous cycle is suggested. "Sex-hormone antagonism" does not exist in the adult mammal.

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