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Influence of extracorporeal circulation on vasomotor tone

, : Influence of extracorporeal circulation on vasomotor tone. Ann Surg 158(4): 544-552

Changes in peripheral arterial tone during extracorporeal circulation were initially assessed by determination of pressure over a wide range of flows in the isolated femoral arterial bed before, during and after complete cardiopulmonary bypass in 31 dogs. Vasodilatation occurred at high extracorporeal flow rates and vasoconstriction occurred at low flow rates. The contractility of the peripheral vascular smooth muscle, as indicated by the vasoconstrictor response to bilateral carotid occlusion and norepinephrine administration and the vasodilator response to acetylcholine, remained unaltered even after prolonged periods of extracorporeal circulation. In order to elucidate the role of the venous system in the observed vasomotor changes the major vessel occlusion technique of Bartelstone was utilized in 20 dogs. This method momentarily isolated a large part of the venous system from the arterial system and from the action of the heart and the respiratory and muscle pumps by simultaneous occulusion of the decending thoracic aorta and inferior vena cava. Extracorporeal circulation exerts a striking effect on venomotor tone. A significant increase in venous capacity due to venodilatation was observed during perfusion at high flow rates while a decrease in venous capacity was noted in other animals perfused at low flow rates. These studies indicate that during extracorporeal circulation changes in venomotor tone and venous capacity are prominent features of the vasomotor response and can account for significant alterations in blood volume.


PMID: 14067502

DOI: 10.1097/00000658-196310000-00004

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