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Ion incorporation and activation energies of conduction in ice


, : Ion incorporation and activation energies of conduction in ice. Ann Ny Acad Sci 125(2): 380-389

Samples of ice doped with hydrofluoric or hydrocholric acid show substantially the same conductivities and activation energies. At concentrations of hydrofluoric acid as low as 10-7 to 10-8 moles Per 1, the conducti characteristics are those of the acid. At constant temperature, the conductivity is proportional to the square root of the acid concentration in the melt. The proportionality factor has been plotted for the temperature range 0 C. to -73[degree]C. and an activation energy of 0. 30 ev. Samples doped with cesium fluoride and potassium fluoride show the same temperature and concentration dependence of the conductivity as those doped with hydrofluoric acid alone. The number of hydrogen ions available for incorporation, and hence the ice conductivity, depends on the difference in incorporation rate of the cations and anions present in the water, the hydrogen-ion concentration of the freezing solution, the freezing rate, and the ice-water interface resistance, which in the case of the fluorides may be greatly reduced by a low-resistance external shunt. The freezing potential also depends on all of these factors plus the gases dissolved in the solution. In ice frozen from dilute ammonium-fluoride solutions (10-5 to 10-2 [image]), the conductivity and activation energy appear to be largely a function of the ratio HF : NH4F.

US$19.90

DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1965.tb45404.x


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