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On the ecology of the flat-bug Aradus cinnamomeus Panz

, : On the ecology of the flat-bug Aradus cinnamomeus Panz. Biologia [Bratislava] 19(10): 762-777

Some aspects of the ecology of A. cinnamomeus, sucking sap of some conifers were studied in Slovakia (CSSR) for 2 years. Besides 2 permanent plots with an outbreak of this bug, over 130 plantations of pines were investigated, of which about 36% were attacked. Five hundred seventy-nine samples of the basal parts of treetrunks of 4 species of conifers were examined for wintering bugs. The flat-bug is distributed at present almost over the entire Slovakia, from about 200 to 880 m altitude. Host-plants are Scots pine, black or Austria pine, jack pine and European larch. Heavily injured were mostly Scot pines, Austria pines and larches 5 to about 30 years of age, on which outbreaks of bugs were found. The mostly threatened afforestations are that of 8-13, the least ones of 5-7 years of age. The bug has a 2-year generation. There are in Slovakia 3 well recognizable and separated strains of the bug, e. g. even, uneven and mixed, named according to the years of egg laying. The bug, either larva, nymph or imago, winters beneath the bark of the trunk-base and in the litter around the base about mid Nov. and returns for breeding, sucking, respectively, from late March to early April. Copulation takes place immediately after leaving wintering places and egg laying was observed from late April to early June. The population turn-over is in June [long dash]July. Between imagines the most numerous are the wingless females, the winged ones making up 1 -2% of the population, though their numerical participation rises as the feeding conditions become worse. The sexual index is shifted towards females, but changes considerably throughout the year. The density of imagines was 3-21 in different tree species, that of larvae 11-41/decimeter 2 of trunks and up to 4200 larvae/tree. Egg density was 180/decimeter 2. Of diseases a parasitic fungus (Beauveria sp.) has been found, which killed about 4% of the population examined. Of predators larvae of snake-flies, red mites, pseudoscorpions and ladybirds have been found. Symptoms of the bug-attacked trees, injury, respectively are briefly described and the methods of investigation and counting discussed, of which control with formalin has been newly developed. The flat-bug causes serious damage to young conifers, especially, but to pines and larches by piercing and sucking the sap of the phloem and early wood, but this pest is overlooked in many cases.


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