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Processes of self-regulation and mechanisms of aging development Data from the symposium on the basic problems of the physiology and biochemistry of aging


, : Processes of self-regulation and mechanisms of aging development Data from the symposium on the basic problems of the physiology and biochemistry of aging. Processes of self-regulation and mechanisms of aging development (rabbit, cat, rat ) Data from the symposium on the basic problems of the physiology and biochemistry of aging Protsessy samoregulyatsii i mekhanizmy razvitiya stareniya organizma In: Materialy Simpoziuma po osnovnym problemam vozrastnykh fiziologii i biokhimii, 1963 Data from the symposium on the basic problems of the physiology and biochemistry of aging 37-45

[long dash]Age-specific changes in sensitivity to chemical substances and the range of reactivity and sensitivity to neural effects were studied in laboratory animals. With age the sensitivity of the organs and tissues to humoral effects increased; it decreased for neural effects. The reaction of the skeletal muscles to intraarterial injection of acetylcholine decreased for rabbits from 33. 5 to 13. 0 /g of dry weight; the excitation threshold increased by 28%. The direct effect of epinephrine, pentylenetetrazol, pituitrin, and CaCl2 on the myocardium was more pronounced and the reflector effect weaker in old cats. In rats the excitability and lability of the vegetative ganglia decreased, but the sensitivity to acetylcholine increased. Increased sensitivity to thyroxine was determined by studying gas exchange, nitrogen in the urine, and the cholesterol level. The maximum reaction in young animals was greater than in the old ones; therefore, the range of reactions decreases in old age. In extreme old age and in premature senescence the sensitivity to the humoral factors decreased. When age-specific neuro-humoral control in muscle tissue was examined (in the evolutionary plane: by changes in sensitivity to acetylcholine and epinephrine of the muscle wall of the intestine, heart, nictitating membrane, and skeletal muscles of rabbits and cats), it was found that the age-specific changes in sensitivity are least pronounced in the smooth muscles of the small intestine and most pronounced in the nictitating membrane and skeletal muscles. It is concluded that the evolutionary level of tissue development has an effect on age-specific changes in regulation. In old age, when the centrifugal effect on the effectors is weakened, feedback information from the chemoreceptors of the vessels may increase due to an increase in sensitivity to the effects of hypoxic and cholinomimetic substances (pentylenetetrazol and hexobarbital) and this compensates for the weakening of the direct connections.

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